A brief study on the Pandiyas (Paandiyar) of the "post" third Sangam Period of Tamil Nadu
The Paandiyar dynasty of Tamil Nadu India fostered the growth of Tamil - Language and Literary Studies, with many Tamil Poets composing poetic works from the institutions known as Thamil Sangams under the royal patronage of the Paandiyar kings. There had been three such Sangams from the early days, with the third (last) Thamil Sangam having been located in the present Mathurai in south Tamil Nadu.
The last among the Paandiya kings who ruled the Paandiya Country as from B.C.550-292 the last king we are aware ruling was Ukkirapperuvaluthi. Midway during the period of his rule a great famine struck Paandiya Nadu which put an end the Third Thamil Sangam. The famine last 12 - years. After this period the Thamil Sangam ceased to exist as Tamil development Institution with many schlarly poets from various parts of Tamil Nadu composed poems which were to survive the Linguistic and Literary criticisems of fellow Poets of this Sangam.
The third Thamil Sangam came to an end during the rule of the king Paandiyan Ukkirap Peruvaluthi. The present study is on the Pandiyar kings from the time of Ukkirap Peruvaluthi (post Sangam period) to the period of Kalabhra (Kalappirar) invasion of Tamil Nadu inclusive of Paandiya Nadu.
(1) Ukkirapp Peruvalthi (B.C.36-14)
One of his achievements was the victory over the valient Chieftain named Veangai Maarban of Tamil Nadu and the capture of his fortress named Kaanap Pereyil. It was during the period of of this Paandiyan king the arangetram of the great Tamil treatise on Code of Ethics the Thirukkural of the Sage/Poet Thiruvalluver was done at the third Thamil Sangam in Mathurai in his presense. His Chola and Chera contemporary kings were the (Rasasuyam Veatta) Perunatkilli and Maari Venko.
(2) Famine in Paandiya Naadu (B.C.14-A.D.02)
Towards the end of rule of Paandiyan Ukkirap Peruvaluthi the Paandiya Nadu underwent acute weather changes with severe drought resulting in with much famine in the country. As this situation prolonged king Ukkirap Peruvauthi requested all the court Poets to find their way to other countries with more fertile lands to tide over the situation, and to return back with improved conditions in the country. This caused the activities of the Third Thamil Sangam coming to a halt a temporarily. But it took twelve long years for the weather conditions of Paandiya Nadu to change again and gradually turn back into fertile land. It appears within this period the Paandiyan king Ukkirap Peruvaluthi too met his death.
(3) Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi (A.D.02-24)
It appears after Ukkirap Peruvaluthi possibly his son acended the throne of the Paandiya kingdom. With bad experience of famine in Pandiya country for twelve years he tried to put his country in the path of development and progress. He not only made use of human efforts to uplift his country, but also used the devine blessings to achieve same and achieve prosperity to his country turned to Vedic Priests to perform many Yaagas (Yagna) in his kingdom. Hence he came to be known as "Pal Yaaga Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi".
(4) Karunkaivaat Peruvaluthi (A.D.24-46)
(5) Velliambalam thunjiya Peruvaluthi (A.D.46-68)
(6) Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvaluthi (A.D.68-90)
(7) Nambi Neduncheliyan (A.D.90-112)
With the demise of Ukkirap Peruvaluthi came the end of 'Peruvaluthi' line of Paandiyar dynasty, and the rise of the 'Cheliyan' line of the same dynasty in Paandiya Nadu. It appears that the next successor to the Paandiyan throne was king Nambi Neduncheliyan.
(8) Thalai Alanganaththu Neduncheliyan (A.D.112-A.D.134)
He was possibly the son of Nambi Neduncheliyan who fought at Thiru-Aalangaanam defeated seven kings the Cheral, Sembiyan, Thithiyan, Elini, Erumaiyuran, Ilango Venmaan, and Porunan. This Cheliyan also captured Musiri the seaport city of Cheras and seized the treasured statue of the city. He also defeated two great kings at Koodal Paranthalai, and the king Pulli at Vengadam, king Kaari of Mullur, kings Oori and Seralan.
This above are confirmed by the following references
"……koi suval puravi kodithther Cheliyan
Aalangaanaththu ahan thalai sivappa,
Cheral, Sembiyan, sinamkelu Thithiyan
por val yaanaip polam poon Elini
naar ari Naravin Erumaiyooran
thermkamal akalaththup pularnththa saanthin Ilango Venmaan,
iyal ther Porunan, entru Eluvar nal valam adanga oru pakal
murasodu venkudai ahappaduththu…….."
Ahanaanooru - verse 36
"........valam elu Musiri arrpu ela valaiyee
arum samam kadanthu 'padimam' vaviya
nedu nal yanai adu por Cheliyan......"
Ahananooru - chapter 7, verse 148
"......koi suvat puravi kodit ther Cheliyan
muthu neer mun thurai Musiri muttri....
kaliru pada erukkiya kallen gnatpin
arumpunn urunarin varunthinal...."
Ahanaanooru - verse 57
(9) Ariyappadai kadantha Neduncheliyan (A.D.134-156)
(10) Vetrivet Cheliyan (A.D.156-178)
(11) Chitramaadaththu thunjiya Nan Maran (A.D178-200)
Uruththirasanmar - Thohuppaasiriyar of Ahanaanooru
(12) Ilavanthikai thunjiya Nan Maaran (A.D.200-222)
(13) Koodakaththu thunjiya Maran Valuthi(A.D.222-244)
(14) Pannaadu thantha Maran Valuthi (A.D.244-266)
(15) Nal Valuthi (A.D.266-288)
(16) Kuru Valuthi (A.D.288-A.D.310)
(17) Arimarthana Paandiyan alias Varagunapaandiyan (A.D.310-332)
The Tamil Saiva Saint Maanikkavaasakar lived during this period
(18) Sakanaatha Paandiyan(A.D.332-354)
(11) Kalabhra (Kalappirar) Invasion A.D.354
Note: The foregoing will be reviewed frequently corrected where necessary, and added with additional informations with eviidence as and when they surface.