A brief study on the Paandiya kings after the fall of Madurai to Muslim Invaders

Thread started by virarajendra on 15th March 2015 09:18 PM



Author: Virarajendra

Under construction


A brief study on the Paandiya kings after the fall of Madurai to Muslim Invaders

(1) Maravarman Kulasekara Paandiyan (A.D.1268-1309)

Maravarman Kulasekara Pandiyan crowned his second son Maravarman Vira Paandiyan as his successor (crown prince = yuvaraja) of the Paandiyan empire, by passing his legitimate eldest son Maravarman Sundara Paandiyan in the year A.D 1309. The latter greatly disturbed over same murdered his father Maravarman Kulasekara Paandiyan in the same year A.D.1310 drove away Vira Paandiyan and crowned himself as the king at Mathurai.

Evidences:
"Kales Dewar" (Kulasekara Devar), the ruler of Ma'bar (Tamil Nadu of South India), enjoyed a highly prosperous life, extending to forty and odd years, during which time neither any foreign enemy entered his country, nor any severe malady confined him to bed. His coffers were replete with wealth, in as much that in the treasury of the city of Mardí there were 1,200 crores of gold deposited, every crore being equal to a thousand laks, and every lak to one hundred thousand dínárs. Besides this there was an accumulation of precious stones, such as pearls, rubies, turquoises, and emeralds, - more than is in the power of language to express......"

This fortunate and happy sovereign had two sons, the elder named Sundar Pandí (Sunthara Pandiyan), who was legitimate, his mother being joined to the Dewar (Kulasekara Devar) by lawful marriage, and the younger named Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan, was illegitimate, his mother being one of the mistresses who continually attended the king in his banquet of pleasure; for it was customary with the rulers of that country that, when the daily affairs of the administration were over, and the crowds that attended the court had gone to their respective homes, a thousand beautiful courtezans used to attend the king in his pleasure. They used to perform the several duties prescribed to each of them; some were appointed as chamberlains, some as interpreters, (and) some as cup-bearers....."

As Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan) was remarkable for his shrewdness and intrepidity, the ruler nominated him as his successor. His brother Sundar Pandí, being enraged at this supercession, killed his father, in a moment of rashness and undutifulness, towards the close of the year 709 H. (1310 A.D.), and placed the crown on his head in the city of Márdí (Madurai). He induced the troops who were there to support his interests, and conveyed some of the roval treasures which were deposited there to the city of Mankúl, and he himself accompanied, marching on, attended in royal pomp, with the elephants, horses, and treasures. Upon this his brother Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan), being resolved on avenging his father's blood, followed to give him battle, and on the margin of a lake which, in their language, they call Taláchí, the opponents came to action. Both the brothers, each ignorant of the fate of the other, fled away; but Tíra Pandí being unfortunate [tíra bakht], and having been wounded, fell into the hands of the enemy, and seven elephant-loads of gold also fell to the lot of the army of Sundar Pandí.

Tarikh-I Alai (Khazainu-L Futuh) - by Amir Khusru


(2) Sadaiyavarman Vira Paandiyan (early A.D.1309) - younger brother of - (3) (first part of his rule)

However within the same year Vira Paandiyan returned with a combined large force - of his own forces and that of Manapperumal the son of his sister of Vira Paandiyan (nephew) ruling as a Paandiya subordinate from Karur - defeated Sunthara Pandiyan and commenced his rule from Mathurai in the year A.D.1309.

Evidences:
It is a saying of philosophers, that ingratitude will, sooner or later, meet its punishment, and this was proved in the sequel, for Manár Barmúl (Manapperumal), the son of the daughter of Kales Dewar (Kulasekara Devar), who espoused the cause of Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan), being at that time at Karám-hattí, near Kálúl (Karur), sent him assistance, both in men and money, which was attended with a most fortunate result. Sundar Pandí (Sunthara Pandiyan) had taken possession of the kingdom, and the army and the treasure were his own; but, as in every religion and faith, evil deeds produce a life of insecurity, a matter which it is unnecessary to expatiate upon, he, not withstanding all his treasures and the goodwill of the army, was far from being happy and prosperous, entertaining crude notions, and never awaking from his dream of pride, and at last he met with the chastisement due to his ingratitude, for in the middle of the year 710 (1310 A.D.) Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan), having collected an army, advanced to oppose him, and Sundar Pandí (Sunthara Pandiyan0, trembling and alarmed, fled from his native country, and took refuge under the protection of 'Aláu-d dín, of Dehli, and Tíra Pandí (Vira Pandiyan) became firmly established in his hereditary kingdom.

While I was engaged in writing this passage, one of my friends said to me: “The kings of Hind are celebrated for their penetration and wisdom; why then did Kales Dewar (Kulasekara Devar), during his life*time, nominate his younger and illegitimate son as his successor; to the rejection of the elder, who was of pure blood, by which he introduced distraction into a kingdom which had been adorned like a bride.”

Tarikh-I Alai (Khazainu-L Futuh) - by Amir Khusru


(3) Sadaiyavarman Sunthara Paandiyan (late A.D.1309)

Sunthara Paandiyan greived over his defeat at Mathurai, now seeked the assistance of Malik Kafur the general of Allauddin Khilji (A.D.1296-1317) of the Delhi kingdom stationed at that time in south Karnataka namely Warangal, to succeed on the throne at Mathurai defeating Vira Paandiyan. The Muslim Forces of Malik Kafur lead by Sunthara Paandiyan invaded Mathurai in Tamil Nadu for the first time in the year A.D.1310 (A.H.710 as per Amir Khusru's writings). Sadaiyavarman Vira Paandiyan was defeated and Sadaiyavarman Sunthara Pandiyan was reinstated as the next successor to the Paandiyan throne at Mathurai.

Evidences:
"....by the force of the arms of the victorius Muhammadan soldiers Bir Dhul and Bir Pandya miight be reduced together with the seas which encircle them into one cup. Here (at Dhur Samunder) he stayed to make inquiries respecting the countries in advance, when he was informed that the two Rais (kings) of Ma'bar the eldest named Bir Pandiya (Vira Paandiyan) the youngest Sundar Pandiya who had up to that time continued on friendly terms had advanced against each other with hostile intentions and that Billal Deo the Rai (king) of Dhur Samundar, on leaniing this fact had marched for the purpose of sacking their two empty cities and plundering the merchants, but that on hearing of the advance of the Muhammadan army he had returned to his own country......Much gold and valuable jewels fell into the hands of the Musulmans who returned to the royal canopy after exxecuting their holy project on the 13th of Zi-l kada 710 (April A.D.1311) They destroyed all the temples at Birdhul and paced the plunder in the public treasurey.

After five days the royal canopy moved from Birdhul on Thursday the 17th of Zi-l kada, and arrived at Kham and five days afterwards they arrived at the city Mathra (Madura) the dwelling place of the brother of the Rai Pandya. They found the city empty for the Rai had fled with the Ranis, but had left two or three elephants in the temple of Jagnar (Jagganath). The elephants were captured and the temple burnt. Whenthe Malik came to take a muster of his captured elephants they extended over a length of three parasangs and amounted to five hundred and twelve besides five thousand horses Arabian and Syrian and five hundred mans of jewels of every description , diamonds pearls emeralds and rubies. on Sunday the 4th of Zi-i hijja 710 H Malik Kafur accompanied by his army returned towards Delhli with all the plunder and arrived in safety on Monday the 4th of Jumada-s Sani 711 H. Sultan Alau-ddin held a public darbar in front of the Golden Palace and all the nobles and chief stood on the right and on the left according to their rank....."

Tarikh-I Alai (Khazainu-L Futuh) - by Amir Khusru

Towards the end of the year 710 H. (1310 A.D.) the Sultán sent an army under Malik Náíb Káfúr against Dhúr-samundar and Ma'bar. The Malik, with Khwája Hájí, Náíb-i 'áriz, took leave of the Sultán and proceeded to Rábarí, where the army collected. They then proceeded to Deogír, where they found that Rámdeo was dead, and from Deogír to the confines of Dhúr-samundar. At the first onslaught Billál Ráí fell into the hands of the Muhammadans, and Dhúr-samundar was captured. Thirty-six elephants, and all the treasures of the place, fell into the hands of the victors. A despatch of victory was then sent to Dehlí, and Malik Náíb Káfúr marched on to Ma'bar, which he also took. He destroyed the golden idol temple (but-khánah-i zarín) of Ma'bar, and the golden idols which for ages (karnhá) had been worshipped by the Hindus of that country. The fragments of the golden temple, and of the broken idols of gold and gilt, became the rich spoil of the army. In Ma'bar there were two Ráís, but all the elephants and treasure were taken from both, and the army turned home*wards flushed with victory. A despatch of victory was sent to the Sultán, and in the early part of 711 H. (1311 A.D.) the army reached Dehlí, bringing with it six hundred and twelve elephants, ninety-six thousand mans of gold, several boxes of jewels and pearls, and twenty thousand horses. Malik Náíb Káfúr pre*sented the spoil to the Sultán in the palace at Sírí on different occasions, and the Sultán made presents of four mans, or two mans, or one man, or half a man of gold to the maliks and amírs. The old inhabitants of Dehlí remarked that so many elephants and so much gold had never before been brought into Dehlí. No one could remember anything like it, nor was there anything like it recorded in history.
Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi (Khazainu-L Futuh) - by Ziau-D Din Barni


Capture of Southern Mathra (Madura).
After five days, the royal canopy moved from Bírdhúl on Thursday, the 17th of Zí-l ka'da, and arrived at Kham, and five days afterwards they arrived at the city Mathra (Madura), the dwelling-place of the brother of the Ráí Sundar Pándyá. They found the city empty, for the Ráí had fled with the Ránís, but had left two or three elephants in the temple of Jagnár (Jag-ganáth).” The elephants were captured and the temple burnt.

When the Malik came to take a muster of his captured ele*phants they extended over a length of three parasangs, and amounted to five hundred and twelve, besides five thousand horses, Arabian and Syrian, and five hundred mans of jewels of every description—diamonds, pearls, emeralds, and rubies.
Return to Dehli.

On Sunday, the 4th of Zí-l hijja, 710 H. Malik Káfúr, accom*panied by his army, returned towards Dehli with all the plunder, and arrived in safety on Monday, the 4th of Jumáda-s Sání, 711 H. Sultán 'Aláu-d dín held a public darbár in front of the Golden Palace, and all the nobles and chiefs stood on the right and on the left, according to their rank. Malik Náib Káfúr Hazár-dínárí, with the officers who had accompanied him, were presented to the Sultán, before whom the rich booty was ex*hibited. The Sultán was much gratified, loaded the warriors with honour, and the darbár was dissolved.

Tarikh-I Alai (Khazainu-L Futuh) - by Amir Khusru


".......munnaal Rasarasan Sunthara Paandiyathevar Thulukkarudan vantha naaalile Ookkurudaiyaarum evarudaiya thambimaarum anaivarum adiyaarum ......seththum kettum poai alainthu uurum vellathaalum, kalahaththaalum paalaai irrukkintra alavile......"
Parijathavaneswaraswamy Temple, Thirukkalar, Nanilam district, Tamil Nadu
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol VIII, Ins No: 247


(4) Sadaiyavarman Vira Paandiyan (A.D.1310-1340) - younger brother of - (3) (second part of his rule)

During the begining of his rule in A.D.1312 taking opportunity of the political turmoil in Paandiya Nadu between the two brothers in the south of the Paandiyan empire, the Chera king Ravivarman Kulasekara from Kodungallur of Chera country (north Kerala) invaded Thodaimandalam the north Paandiyan empire and brought the regions Srirangam, Poonthamalli and Kancihpuram under his control defeating the Paandiya forces.

Also the Chieftains of Thondaimandalam namely the Sambuvarayers too taking opportunity of the situation declared themselves independent from the Paandiyas driving away the forces of the Chera king Ravivarman Kulasekara and continued to rule this region.

Towards the end of the rule in A.D.1326 of king Mohammad Bin Tuglak (A.D.1325-1351) of Delhi, he sent his general Jalaluddin Asansa on a second expedition to Mathurai who defeated Sunthara Paandiyan who escaped capture and his kin Maravarman Parakkrama Paandiyan fell into their hands and was taken captive to the kingdom of Delhi, and reinstated Vira Paandiyan who re-commenced his rule from Mathurai. However with his insecurity at Mathurai handed over the rule of same to his former ally namely the Vaanakovaraiyar and moved to Thirunelveli and establised his new kingdom at Karivalamvantha Nallur in this region.

Within a short period of Vaanakovaraiyar rule at Mathurai (A.D.1326-1330), the Muslim general Jalaluddin Asansa the representative of Mohhamed Bin Tulgk defeated the Vaankovaraiyar and declared himself as independent of the Delhi Sultante and commenced the Muslim rule in Mathurai in from A.D.1330, while Vira Paandiyan continued his rule from his kingdom at Karivalamvantha Nallur in Thirunelveli.

From A.D.1330 upto A.D.1364 the kingdom of Mathurai was ruled by seven Muslim Sultans, which has been a period of religious anarchy in Mathurai.

The Vijayanagara King Veera Kambannan invaded Mathurai in A.D.1364 and relieved it from the grip of the (Islamic) Sultans and reinstated Paandiya Nadu to it's next legitimate Paandiya ruler the Sadaiyavarman Parakrama Paandiyan on the Paandiyan throne at Mathurai. Prior to his reinstation at Mathurai by the Vijayanagara king he was ruling from the new Paandiyan capital city built by him at Tenkasi in Thirunelveli, and Mathurai was being ruled by the Muslim Sultans under much anarchy.

(5) Sadaiyavarman Parakkrama Paandiyan - 1 (A,D.1357-1387)
Capital City - Thirukkuttralam in Thirunelveli (A.D.1357-1364) / Mathurai (A.D.1364-1387)
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -
Historical Interests - It was during the second part of his rule of Paraakkrama Paandiyan - 1 in Mathurai being A.D.1364-1387, he re-constructed many sections of the Mathurai Meenaakshi temple damaged during the period of Muslim invasions and subsequent Muslim rule in Mathurai. He during this period also built the 'West Gopuram' of "Mathurai Meenaakshi temple".

(6) Sadaiyavarman Kulasekara Paandiyan (A,D.1395-1396)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(7) Sadaiyavarman Vikkrama Paandiyan (A,D.1401-1422)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(4) Sadaiyavarman Parakkrama Paandiyan - 2 (A,D.1422-1463)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions - He defeated the kings of Raaasai, Senpai, Vinthai, Aranthai Mudalai, Veerai, Vaippaaru in the mainland.
Overseas War Expeditions: He was the most powerfull among the later Pandiyar kings after the Muslim invasion of Mathurai. His forces crossed seas and defeated the king of Singhai (Nagar) of north Sri Lanka (the Jaffna Tamil Kingdom), and Anurai (Nagar) the Anuradhapura of the Sinhalese kingdom in north central Sri Lanka.
Mainland Political Relations -
Historical Interests - He built a new city named "Ten Kasi" in Thirunelveli and constructed therein the "Kasi Visvanaather (Siva) temple" on a location adjacent to the river 'Chitra Nathi' which was completed in the year A.D.1448. Hence forth all Paandiya kings after Parakkrama Paandiyan - 2 crowned themselves at this temple, and ruled from Mathurai.
Over Seas Political Relations - Sri Lanka
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/i...CIjvHtf_QLc65w

Very Important Note:

It is very unfortunate - that the Official Website of "Ten Kasi Visvanather (Siva) Temple of West Mambalam in Chennai " gives a "completely wrong picture to the Readers" that the "Ten Kaasi Visvanather Temple at Thirunelveli was built by Nayakkar Kings and was patronised by them". The truth of it's history are gleaned from the very Inscriptions in Tamil inscribed on granite walls of this temple. They conform positively that "Arikesari Paraakrama Paandiyan" while ruling from Mathurai commenced building the Kasi Visvanather Temple in their new city - the Tenkasi at Thirunelveli in the year A.D.1446 and completed the A.D.1467. However the construction of it's Gopuram which he commenced during the period of his rule in A.D.1457 was only completed by his brother "Kulasekara Paandiyan" in the year A.D.----.

The Tamil & Grantha Inscriptions in the Kaasi Visvanather temple at Tenkasi itself further confirms that Arikesari Parakkrama Paandiyan built everything from bottom to top of this temple. The sections of this temple built by Paraakrama Paandiyan are the Padai veedu (Karuvarai) where (the images of) Udaiyaar Visvanathan and Ulakamuluthudaiya Naachchiyaar were installed in the Temple of this God, and Thoopi on Upanaathi (Vimaanam) and Arthamandapam, Idai Naalikai, Mahaa Mandapam, Sopanam, Avaranam and Gopurams, and in the Temple of Ulakamuluthudaiya Naachiyaar with Avaranam, and commenced the work on the Gopuram.He also built subshrines and installed Saharalingam, Sakthi, Rishabathevar, Pidaari, and on the west in the fifth thiruveethi a temple for Arikesari Pillaiyaar, Aaraatu Thirumandapam as Madaipalli (Vechamuthu mandapam) and the Maha Gopuram.

The "double fish" emblem of the Paandiyar dynasty also have been engraved in this temple. The Paandiyars continued to rule from Mathurai until the fall of Chandrasekara Paandiyan A.D.1534. It was only from A.D.1538 the Nayakkar dynasty commenced their firm rule in Mathurai under the first Nayakkar king namely the "Visvanatha Nayakkar". The Then Kasi city and temple built by Parakrama Pandiyan continued to remain under Paandiyar thereafter and never came under the rule of Vijayanagara or subsequent Nayakkar kings of Mathurai.

Read the text of the History of this Temple
"wrongly interpreted against true historical facts at the following URL"


http://westmambalamkasiviswanatharte...n/history.html

In the following "Video" too it has been "very erronously claimed" that many sections of the "Then Kasi Visvanather Temple of Thirunelveli in Tamil Nadu", had been built by the Vijayanagara and Naayakkar kings subsequently. .

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvTa...layer_embedded

As this Video has been disabled from being played in other Websites other than YouTube, please view same at that Website under the following URL.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur...&v=JvTauHeW5L4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LCi...yer_detailpage

As this Video has been disabled from being played in other Websites other than YouTube, please view same at that Website under the following URL.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur...&v=9LCiqFnXmts

Read the text of the History of this Temple "correctly" given in the Official Website of Kasi Visvanather Temple in Tenkaasi at the following URL"

http://www.tenkasikasiviswanathaswam...n/history.html

The Thenkaasi Visvanathar temple as it is today is the finest "Tamil Architectural and Sculptural Monument" of the later "Paandiyan period", with much maturity in their fine sculpture of awsome monolithic figurines in this temple. It is this temple layout and the technique of finest sculpture of the "Kaasi Visvanather Temple at Thenkaasi" built during the period of Paraakkrama Paandiyan (A,D.1422-1463) by Paandiyan Sculptors, were adopted to re-model the badly damaged sections (after Muslim invasion) of the Mathurai Meenaakshi temple to the same design and style, by the first Nayakkar king of Mathurai the Visvanatha Nayakkar (A.D.1529-1564) and his chief minister Ariyanatha Muthaliyar - a native Tamil from Thondai Mandalam much later in the years around A.D.1530. The Puthu Mandapam with it's fine Sculptures in front of the Mathurai Meenakshi temple built by Ariyanatha Muthaliyar on behalf of Nayakkar king, is almost similer to the Puthu Mandapam with Sculptures built in front of Thenkaasi Visvanather temple. Hence Art Historians of Tamil Nadu 'are not justified' in calling the renovated sections of Mathurai Meenaakshi temple under Nayakkar kings - are of Nayakkar Sculptural or Architectural style, but correctly as the "Paandiyan style of Sculpture and Architecture at it's maturity" (i.e. not Dravidian Sculpture and Architecture, but the Tamilian Sculpture and Architecture) that was prevalent in Paandiya Nadu at the time of the beginning of Nayakkar rule in Mathurai in A.D.1529.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MArw...yer_detailpage

(5) Sadaiyavarman Kulasekara Paandiyan (A.D.1429-1473) - son of (4)

Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions -
Mainland Political Relations -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Historical Interests - Kulasekaranathar temple of Thirunelveli was the Pallippadai Koyil of Kulasekara Pandiyan, built after the death of this king closer to Thenkasi Visvanaather temple, even though he ruled from Vinthankottai during his subsequent period of his rule.

(6) Sadaiyavarman (Parakkrama) Vira Paandiyan (A.D.1473 - 1499)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(8) Chandrasekara Paandiyan (A.D.1499-1534)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -
Historical Interests - During his rule from Mathurai Virasekara Cholan invaded and captured Mathurai and drove away the Chandrasekara Paandiyan. The latter requested the Vijayanagaa king Krishnadevaraaya to assist him in regaining Mathurai, who inturn sent his military general Nakama Nayakkar to assist the Paandiyas. This general after defeating the driving away the Cholas from Mathurai didnot hand over the region to the Paandiyas but kept under his rule. The Krishnadevaraaya on hearing same sent Visvanatha Naayakkar the son of Nakama Nayakkar to Mathurai to punish Nakama Nayakkar.

(8) Sadaiyavarman Srivallaba Paandiyan (A.D.1534-1543)
Capital city - Capital city - He built his new capital at Vinthai which was earlier captured by Sadaiyavarman Parakkrama Paandiyan which, subsequently came to be known as the Vinthankottai of Tirunelveli of Tamil Nadu (around 15 Kilometres from Thenkasi)
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(9) Sadaiyavarman Parakrama Kulasekara Paandiyan (A.D.1543-1552)
Capital city - Vinthankottai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(10) Nelveli Maaran (A.D.1552-1564)
Capital city - Vinthankottai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(11) Sadaiyavarman Athiveeraraama Paandiyan (A.D.1564-1604)
Capital city - Vinthankottai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(12) Varathungarama Paandiyan (A.D.1588-1613)
Capital city - Vinthankottai
Sea-port City - Kottai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -

(13) Varakunaraman Kulasekara Paandiyan (A.D.1613-???) son of
(11) Capital city - Vinthankottai
Sea-port City - Kotkai
Mainland War Expeditions with -
Mainland Political Relations with -
Over Seas War Expeditions to -
Over Seas Political Relations with -
Historical Interests - He (Veeraraman Kotkai yaali Kulasekaan) was well versed in Tamil composed the Tamil Code of Ethics the "Vettrivetkai" (also known as Narunthokai).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bByFp...yer_detailpage




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