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Thread: A brief study on the Kalabhra (Kalappirar) period of rule in Tamil Nadu

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    A brief study on the Kalabhra (Kalappirar) period (A.D.467-570) of rule of Tamil Nadu

    (1) The invasion and capture of Kanchipuram of Tamil Nadu by the Gupta kings

    With the fall of the Sathavaahana empire of Maharashtra encompassing the present Maharashtra and whole of Andhra Pradesh in the year A.D.250, the Andhra-Pallava dynasty who ruled their own kingdom in the present Bellary region of Andhra Pradesh became independent. During the period of the king Sivaskandhavarman (A.D.340-355) of the Andhra-Pallava dynasty their territorial region extended up to Kanchipuram in north Tamil Nadu. He and his son Vishnugopa (A.D.345-355) during their rule have issued copper-plate grants on the gifts they have made to Vedic Priests during their visits to Kanchipuram from their capital city at Bellary region.

    The decline of Sathavaahana empire gradually paved way to the rise of the Gupta empire in North India. During this period the king Samudragupta (A.D.335-380) captured many regions of North India and also sent forces to capture the regions of the present Andhra Pradesh. These forces defeated the king Vishnu Gupta the last Andhra-Pallava of the present Bellary region, and also captured Kanchipuram of Tamil Nadu which was under their fold in the year A.D.355. He handed over the region to its traditional kings the Tamil Thiraiyar dynasty probably under agreement to pay tributes to king Samudra Gupta.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......Maharajhadiraja the glorius Samudra Gupta....whose great good fortune was mixed with, so as to be increased by (his) glory produced by the favour shewn in capturing and then liberating Mahendra of Kosala, Vyāghraraja of Mahākantāra, Mantarāja of Kurūḷa, Mahendra of Pishtapura, Svāmidatta of Kottura on the hill, Damana of Erandapalla, Vishnugopa of Kānchi, Nīlarāja of Avamukta, Hastivarman of Vengā, Ugrasena of Palakka, Kubera of Devarāshtra, Dhananjaya of Kusthalapura, and all the other kings of the region of the south......."
    Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum (Inscriptions of the Early Guptas) by John F.Fleet, Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 10-17].


    (2) The fall of Gupta kings and regain of Kanchipuram by Tamil Thiraiyar dynasty

    In the year A.D.467 with the demise of Skanda Gupta (A.D.455-467) the last of the great Gupta kings their empire met a total collapse and the Thiraiyar dynasty of Thondaimandalam became independent.

    (3) The traditional region of Kalabhra (Kalappirar) kingdom of Karnataka

    During this period the Kalabhra dynasty (Kalappirar in Tamil) also known as 'Vadukak Karunaader' (Vaduka=Andhra) tracing their origin from Andhra, were ruling from Nandhi hills (Kalabhra hills) known as Kalavara Nadu (Chikbalpur) in the present Kolar region of south Karnataka. As the Kalabhra dynasty was ruling from the region of Nandi hills they also bore the title as 'Nandi'.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......perum puhal Achuthar kove
    inaiyai aathalin pani mathi thavalum
    Nanthi maamalai silamba Nanthi nit paravuthal
    Naavalarukku arithe......"
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse 86), page 363, International Institute of Tamil Studies publication

    "......aruludai oruvar nit paravutum enko
    irularu thikiriyodu valam puri thadakkai
    oruvanai venda irunilam koduththa
    Nanthi maalvarai silambu Nanthi ottrai senkoal oachchi
    kottra venkudai nilattruha enave...."
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse 83), page 325-326, International Institute of Tamil Studies publication.

    "......Nigarili-Sola-mandalattuk-Kalavara-nattu Nanthimalai
    mel Maha-Nanthisvaram-udaiya Mahadevarkku......"
    Epigraphia Carnatica - Vol 10, Chik-Ballapur, Inscription No: 21

    "......Nulambapadiy-agiya Nigarili-Solapadiy-agiya
    Kalavara-nattu
    ......"
    Epigraphia Carnatica - Vol 10, Chik-Ballapur, Inscription No: 23

    ".......Nigarili-Sola-mandalattuk Kalavara-nattu Tirunantisvaram-
    udaiya Mahadevar

    Epigraphia Carnatica - Vol 10, Chik-Ballapur, Inscription No: 23


    (4) The conquer of Tamil Nadu by the Kalabhra king of Karnataka

    The Kalabhra king "Achchutha Vikraanthakan" taking this opportunity with no North Indian empires holding sway in the South, and possibly knowing the weakness of the kings of the Chera, Chola and Paandiya kingdoms, in the year A.D.467 invaded Tamil Nadu with a sea of warriors - on elephants, horses and foot soldiers with spears spread all over.

    The Kalabhra king "Achchutha Vikraanthakan" defeated the Chola king and captured Chola Nadu with their capital and seaport cities at Uraiyur and Kaviripoompattinam. They then proceeded towards the south to Paandiya (Pandiya) Nadu defeated the Paandiyan king (Name still to be determined) and captured his capital city the Mathuraapuri (Mathurai). Subsequently he also defeated the Chera king (at Vanchi Nagar) and spread his authority over most parts of then Tamil Nadu (MuthThamil Nadu).

    It appears the Kalabhra king Achchutha Vikranthahan kept the three kings the Chera, Chola, and Pandiya, in captivity at Thillai (present Chithambaram) in Tamil Nadu. Thus he ruled over the kingdoms of Chera, Chola, Pandiya and his own Kalabra (Kalapirrar) kingdom on Nandi Hills in South Karnataka (close to present Bangalore).

    Important Note:

    Many historical Scholars of today still hold the view that the Kalabhras invaded Tamil Nadu in the year A.D.250 and ruled the region for nearly 300 to 350 years. This conclusion couldnot be accepted based on the other evidences we presently have on same, from which we could conclude that the only Kalabhra kings who ruled over Tamil Nadu under the category of a "Perarasar" (great king) was the king Achchutha Vikkiranthahan and his five successors, and that too only for a period of 103 years. Thereafter his successors became "Sitrarasar" (regional kings) and ruled certain parts of Tamil Nadu, and they themselves over a period of time became more Tamilised. The period they ruled as "Perarasar" over the three Tamil Kingdoms of Tamil Nadu namely the Chera, Chola and Paandiya being from A.D.467 to A.D.570 is referred to as the "Kalabhra period of Tamil Nadu" and not the period they have been as "Sitrarasar".

    The following References confirm the above:"

    "......Padai Naanku udantru Panchavan thuranthu Mathurai vaviya Karunada venthan, Arukar saarnthu nintru (Aran) arutpani addaippa......."
    Kallaadam by Kallaadanaar, Vidvan Naarayana Velupillai edition.

    ".......Palyagasaalai Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi ennum Paandiyathi rasan......Velvikkudi enra pathiyai seerodu thiruvalara seithaar venthan appoluthe neeroda atti koduththamai yaan need pukthi thuiththa pin alavariya Aathiraasarai ahala neekki ahal idaththaik Kalapparar ennum kali arasan kaikondu athanai irakkiyapin......"
    Paandiyar Ceppedukal Paththu - Velvikkudi Saasanam, pages 22-23, Tamil Varalaattru Kalakam publication.

    "......kattrarinthoar thiral parava Kalappaalarai kalai katta
    mat tiran thon Maak Kadungkoan maanapp perth thaliya koan....."
    Paandiyar Ceppedukal Paththu - Seevaranga Saasanam, pages 22-23, Tamil Varalaattru Kalakam publication.

    "......kadinaaru kavin alangkat Kalappaalar kulang kalainththum....."
    Paandiyar Ceppedukal Paththu - Velvikkudi Saasanam, pages ......, Tamil Varalaattru Kalakam publication.

    ".......kaanak kadisool Vaduhak Karunaadar Kaava(la)n maanap padai mannan valinthu nilam kolvaanaay yaanai kuthirai karuvippadai veerar thinder senai kadalung kodu then thisai noakki vanthaan....."

    ".....Vanthuttra perumpadai manputhaip parappi santha Pothiyil Thamil naadudai mannan veeram sintha seru ventru than aanai seluththu maa aartral kantha polil sool Mathurapuri kaaval kondan".
    Periya Puraanam by poet Seikeelaar, Moorthi Naayanaar padalam. Thirup Pananthaal Sri Kaasi Madam publication

    ".....murasu athir viyan Mathurai muluvathoom thalai panippa
    purai thodi thiran thoat poar malaintha Maramallar
    adiyodu mudi irupppun ayarnththavan nilam sera
    podi ela vengkalaththu pudaiththu nin pukalaamo !!...."

    "......adu thiral oruva nit paravuthum engkoan
    thodu kalat kodum poot pahatelil maarbit
    Kayalodu kalantha Silaiudai Koduvari
    puyalural thakkai poar vel Atchuthan
    thontru muthir kadalulakam muluthudan
    ontru puri thihiri uruttuvoan enave...."
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse 83), page 317, International Institute of Tamil Studies publication

    ".....padu parunthum soorp peyum pal langum naayum
    kodiyum kalukum ivai koodi vadivudaiya
    Komaan Kalappaalan kol yaanai pomaaru
    pomaaru pomaarupoam......"
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse ....), page ...., International Institute of Tamil Studies publication


    (5) The formation of the Samanar (Jain) Sangam at Mathurai in Tamil Nadu

    With the capture of the Mathurai of the Paandiyas the Kalabhra king favoured the spread of the (Samana Samayam) 'Jain religion" in this region, and prevented the Saivite religious practices in Mathurai. They established a Sangam under the Jain monk 'Vajjira Nanthi' at Mathurai in the year A.D.470 to promote Jainism through Tamil Lauguage. The rule of Kalabhra kings as 'Perarasar' in Mathurai lasted from A.D.467-570 and during this period the Jainisam religion flourished in this region. There had been many settlements of Jain Monks in the cave temples created by them in and around the region of Mathurai.

    The following References confirm the above:

    ".......in the Vikram Aandu 526 (A.D.470) the Seedar (student) of Poochchiyapaathar the Vajjira Nanthi instituted a Dravida (Tamil) Sangam in Then Mathurai (south Mathurai). This was the Sangam formed for the spread the Jain religion by the Thikambara Jains who came to the south......"
    Thikambara Tharsanam - Author ??

    "......In the holy shrine 'Sri Varththamaaneswara Tharma Theerththam' in the Nanthi Sangam which was full of leaders of various natured groups, came forth the much knowlegible in various Sastras the Achariya the Vajjira Nanthi. For the worship of Jinendra and Jainendra group this (Pallava) king (Simhavishnu A.D......) gifted the entire village "Sramanaachramam' with well defined boundries to this Thavasirestar (Seer)......."
    Pallankoyil Seppedukal - Thirty Copper Plates of the Pallava Period, (Sanskrit portion)page 31

    ".......In the sixth year of Ko Vijaya Simhavarmar (A.D.500 + 6) the Naattaar of Perunagaram of Venkuntra koattam gave the village named Amanserkkai on the Paruthi Kuntram to the Seer Vajjira Nandias Pallisantham. (Among the boundries of this village one was known as "Paandiyan Kayam......"
    Pallankoyil Seppedukal - Thirty Copper Plates of the Pallava Period, (Sanskrit portion)page 31- 32


    (6) The status of Hinduism during the Kalabhra period at Mathurai in Tamil Nadu

    The Kalabhras were of the Samana (Jain religion) and with their conquer of Mathurai they promoted the spread of their religion in Pandiya kingdom and initially were indifferent to the natives practicing the Saivite Religion. However years later they relaxed their stand and while they promoted their Samana Samayam (Jain Religion) they also patronised the Vedic religion.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......thaalum kaiyar thavaththai meiyentru saarnthu veelum kodi yon athuvantriyum veyya munnai soolum vinai yaal aravanj sudar thingalodum vaalum sadaiyaan adiyaaraiyum vanmai seivaan......"
    Periya Puraanam by poet Seikeelaar, Moorthi Naayanaar padalam. Thirup Pananthaal Sri Kaasi Madam publication

    "......porukadal valaakam oru kudai nilattri
    Irupirappaalarukku irunithi eenthu mana mahilnhthu
    arl puri perum pukal Athchchuthak kove......"
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse 86), page 363, International Institute of Tamil Studies publication

    "......alai kadal ulakamum Anthanarkku eenthanai
    ulakodu nilaviya oru pukal sumanthanai......
    pavalam eri thirai Parathai Kove
    pukal thurai nirainththa poru vel Nanthi......"
    Yaaparungalam - Amirthasaakaranaar (with old Viruthu Urai for verse 86), page 361, International Institute of Tamil Studies publication


    (7) The Kalabhra king patronises Buddhism in Tamil Nadu

    It appears Buddhism too flourished during the period of Kalabhras in certain regions of Tamil Nadu unhindered. It was during the period of the Kalabhra king Achchutha Vikkranthahan the Buddhist Monk Buddhadatta a native of Uragapuram (Uraiyur) while at the monastry at Kaviripoompattinam composed the Buddhist text Abhidhammavatara and when residing at the monastry at Bhutamangalam he composed the Buddhist texts Vinaya-Vinicchaya, the Uttara-Vinicchaya, and the Rūpārūpa-Vibhāga all in Pali language. Another Buddhist Monk by the name Buddhagosa who lived both in the Chola country of Tamil Nadu and in Sri Lanka around the same period of the Sri Lankan king Mahaanaama (A.D.450-480), and was also a contemporary of Buddhadatta. This gives us an indication of the actual period of Buddhadatta and the Kalabhra king Achchutha Vikkranthakan.

    The following References confirm the above:

    (1) “In the lovely Kaveripattana, crowded with hordes of man and women, not belonging to impure castes, endowed richly with all the requisites of a town ……. beautified with many gardens, and in a beautiful and pleasant monastery adorned with a mansion as high as the peak of Kailasa, built by Kanhadasa ………..while I was living in an old house there, by me who shining with qualities, such as writing beautifully on good topics ………this was composed and propounded extensively.

    ”Colophon": This work named Abhidhammavatara was composed by Buddhadatta Achariya, inhabitant of Urugapuram (‘Uragapuranivasikena Acariyena bhadanta Bhuddhadattena kato Abhidhammavataro namayam’).

    ".......Kaveri-pattane ramme, nanaramo pasobhite
    Karite Kanhadasena dassaniye manorame......."
    Abhidhammavatara - Slokas 1409-13, Buddhadatta’s Manuals, Parts. I and II, Pali Text Society Publication.


    Also refer the Website titled "Sri Lanka and Buddhism" at the following URL to know the period of rule of the Sri Lankan king Mahaanaama.

    http://www.lankaramaya.com/links/SRILANKA.htm

    Note:

    The Urugapuram and Kaveripattana in the above were known then and now as Uraiyur close to present Thirutchiraappalli and Kaviripoompattinam close to present Seerkaali of Tamil Nadu.

    (2) “In the undisturbed town of Bhutamangala, containing all kinds of people which was the navel of the great Chola kingdom and ……… in the beautiful and pleasant monastery surrounded by well built outer walls and moat belonging to Venhudasa, brilliant with vanira trees lining the banks of the river …. by me who lived in a mansion which clarifies the mind was composed in honour of Buddhasimha this compilation on the principles of Vinaya taught by Buddhasimha for the sake of my pupils and for the good of the Bhikkus who wanted to learn the Vinaya in a short time without difficulty.

    "Colophon": It was begun and finished during the reign of the blemishless Acchuta Vikkanta of the Kalabbha kula. ('Accuta Vikkanta Kalabbha kulanandane mahim samanusasante araddho ca samapito')

    ".... Colaratthe Bhutamaiigala-game
    Venhudasassa arame vasantena
    Accutavikkama-namassa colaraiino kale kato...."
    Vinaya Vinicchaya - Slokas 3168-3179, Buddhadatta’s Manuals, Parts. I and II, Pali Text Society Publication.


    Note

    Bhutamangalam of referred in the above, is presently located halfway in-between the Thanjavur and Nagapattinam highway of Tamil Nadu known as the Budamangalam.

    (8) The demise of Kalabhra king and Paandiyar recapture of their kingdom

    In the A.D.570 the last Kalabhra king who ruled the Chera, Chola and Paandiya kingdoms of Tamil Nadu from Mathurai demised. With his demise and with no heir apparent to the Kalabhra king the Ministers of his kingdom jointly decided and selected a rich merchant from Mathurai, who was a great Sivanadiyaar (the Tamil Saiva Saint - Moorththy Naayanaar) as their next king. It appears during this period the legitimate heir of the Paandiyan dynasty living in hiding was too young to become a king. It was only after some years (around five years) the young Paandyan prince cameout from hiding and proclaimed himself as the next successor of the Paandiyan Throne at Mathurai with his royal title as Kadungkoan, and thus the Paandiyan control over this region was re-established in the same year A.D.575.

    The following References confirm the above:

    ".....Annaal iravin kan Aman pukal saarnthuvaalum
    manaakiya poar Vaduhak-Karunaadar mannan than 'naalum mudinththathu'......"

    "......avvelaiyil angkan Amaichcharkal koodi thangkal
    kai verukol eema varum kadan kaalai muttri
    vai velavan than kula maintharum inmaiyaale
    sei veru vinaiththiranj sinthanai seithu thervaar...."


    Periya Puranam -Moorthi Naayanaar kaandam

    ".....alavariya pukthi athirasarai ahala neekki ahal idaththai
    Kalapran ennum kali araisan kaikondu athanai irakkiyapin padu kadan
    mullaiththa paruthi poat Paandiya aathiraasan "velippattu"
    vidu kathi avi oli vilaka veetrirunthu.....odunga mannar oli nakar aliththa Kadungo ennum kathir vet thennan....."
    Paandiyar Ceppedukal Paththu - Velvikkudi Saasanam, pages 22-23, Tamil Varalaattru Kalakam publication.


    (9) Pallavar captures Kanchi with the death of Achutha Vikkiranthakan

    Taking this opportunity the Pallava king Kumara Vishnu {Vijaya Simhavarman} - 2 (A.D.500-510) captured Kanchi from the Thiraiyar king who was an ally of Kalabhras, and re-established the Pallava rule in this region.

    The following References confirm the above:


    (10) Cheras gain control over their kingdom with the death of Achutha Vikkirantakan

    At Mahodai in Chera Nadu the Chera king too became independent and ruled over his kingdom.

    The following References confirm the above:


    (11) Cholas re-capture their kingdom with the death of Achutha Vikkiranthakan

    In this same year A.D.506 the Cholas too re-asserted themselves from the Kalabhra rule under "Puhal Cholan" and reorganised themselves gradually and built up a large force of warriors and ruled over their own kingdom independently.

    The following References confirm the above:


    (12) Kalabhras come to the status of Sittrarasers from Perarasaers

    However the Kalabhras with the loss of the three Tamil kingdoms continued their rule over small regions in Tamil Nadu as 'Sittrarasar'.

    The following References confirm the above:


    (13) Cholas become powerful and sends a war expedition to Sri Lanka

    During this period with the disturbed conditions in Sri Lanka with the death of the king Mahaanaama (a contemporary of the Kalabhra king Acchuta Vikkrantakan), the 'Puhal Cholan' sent forces under five generals to capture the northern region of Sri Lanka. They successfully won this region and these five Chola generals consecutively ruled over northern Sri Lanka for 27 years.

    During the later part of his life 'Puhal Cholan' became a great devotee of God Siva and opted to spend more on religious life. He ruled the Chola country for nearly 43 years and in A.D.549 with his death his son ascended the throne as the next Chola king. He due to his great devotion to God Siva came be be included among the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu and was referred to as Puhal Chola Naayanaar. His son who succeeded on the Chola throne seems to have been a weak Ruler, which caused much uncertainty in the stability of this kingdom.

    The following References confirm the above:

    ".......His younger brother king Mahanama reigned twenty years. let it be known that at the time a commentator, a Thera by the name of Buddhagosha arrived in the island of Lanka from Dambadiva......the king by the name of Satgahaka reigned for a year (then).....that king(Mitsen).....reigned one year. At that time seven Tamils from the Soli country along with seven thousand Tamils landed in Sri Lanka and having killed (Mitsen) and usurped the throne, and each of them reigned seperately for a period of twenty seven years......"
    Rajavaliya (Sri Lankan Historical Chronicle) - Translated into English by Mr A.V.Suraweera

    "......pulamanniya mannai Singhala Nadu podipaduththa
    kulamanniya Pukalkkoakana nathan kulamuthaloan
    nalamanniya Pukalch Cholan enbar nakusudarvaal
    valamanniya Eripaththanuk eenthathor van pukale....."
    11th Thirumurai - Thiruththondar Thiruvanthathi by Nambiyaandaar Nambi


    (14) The Pallavas capture Chola Nadu and bring into their fold

    The Pallava king Simha Vishnu (Avani Simhan) (A.D.550-570) ruling from the neighbouring Pallava kingdom on seeing he being a weak king invaded Chola Nadu and brought it into the Pallava fold around A.D.556.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......Simhavarman entra arasanidam irunthu jayasaaliyaana Simha Vishnu undaanaan......Kaaviriyinaal alangarikkappattathumaana Cholalarkaludaiya naattai avan kaipattrinaan......"
    Velur Paalayam Copper Plate Grant, Pallavar Cheppedukal Muppathu, Grant by Pallava king Nanthivarman - 3, Page No:259

    "......thaamarai pontra thiruvvadikalai udaiya arasanaana Simhavarmanidamirunthu piranthaan Sri Simha Vishnu.....kaveran makalaana Kaavi nathiyai maalaiyaakavum......konda Chola puumiyaik kaippatrinaan...."
    Pallan Koyil Cheppedukal, Pallavar Cheppedukal Muppathu, of Simha Vishnu, Page 30 & 31

    ".......athan pirahu ethirikalai kalakuvathil eedupattavanaana Avani Simhan thontrinaan......Maalavaththaiyum piraku Kalappra, Maalava, Chola, Paandiya mannarkalaiyum than pujapalaththile karvamadaintha Singhala mannanaiyum, Kerala arasarkalaiyum vettri kondaan....."
    Kasaakkudi Cheppedukal, Pallavar Cheppedukal Muppathu, Grant by Pallava king Nanthivarman - 3, verse 20, Page:174


    (15) Kalabhra Sittarasan Koortuvan recaptures Chola country from the Pallavar

    With the death of the Kalabhra king Atchchutha Vikkiranthakan with no sons of his own as heir appraent, one of his own kin stationed at Kalanthai in Thanjavur district to overlook the region of Chola Nadu during his rule, re-captured Chola Nadu from the Pallavas with the demise of Mahendravarman - 1 and brought it under his (Kalabhra) rule.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......velavan than kula maintharum inmaiyaale....."
    Periyapuraanam - by Seikkeelaar, Kootruvanaayanaar kaandam, verse ???

    "......aarkonda vet Koortr(uv)an Kalanthai koan....."
    7th Thirumurai - by Suntharamoorthy Naayanaar, Thiruth Thondat Thohai, verse 6.


    (16) Koortuvan requests Thillaivaal Anththanar to crown him as the king of Chola country

    Koortruvan with his large forcees of elephants, horses, and foot - soldiers, and with the Chola country and many other villages under his rule, wished to be annointed as the Chola king with the crown of the Cholas kept in safety with "Thillai Vaal Anthanar" at Thillai (Chithamparam) Aadavallaan (Nadarajar) temple. He approached them in connection with same and in turn was refused advising him that 'they only crown the Chola kings and not others at this temple', and left to Chera country fearing of any subsequent repercussions, leaving the Chola crown for safe keeping with one of the Anthanar family who chose to remain. However the grieved Kortruvan had a vision in his dreams the 'God Siva' crowing him with his foot on his head. Thereafter the Koortruvan became more engaged in religious life and later became a Saiva Saint, and subsequently recognised as one of the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints under the name the "Koortruva Naayanaar".

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......Naathan thiruvadiye mudiyaaka kaviththu nalla
    pothang karuththit poriththamaiyaal athu kaikoduppa
    otham thaluviya gnalam ellam oru kolil vaiththaan
    Kothai neduvel Kalappaalan akiya Koottruvane......"
    11th Thirumurai - Thiruththondar Thiruvanthathi - Nambiyaandaar Nambi, verse 47


    (17) Pallavar re-captures the Chola Nadu from the Kalabhras

    With the demise of the Pallava king Mahendravarman his son Narasimhavarman - 1 (A.D.630-668) acended the throne as the next successor to the Pallava kingdom. He waged war with many countries successfully, and also re-captured the Chola country from the Kalabhras and brought it back again into the Pallava fold.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......thirumba thirumba Chola, Kerala, Kalapira (Kalabhra), Paandiyarkalai vettri kondavanum.....Vaathaapiyai aliththavanumaana Narasimhavarman....."
    Kuram Copper Plate Grant - of Parameswaravarman - 1, Thirty Pallava Copper Plates published by The Tamil Varalattru Kalagam, page 55


    (18) Kalabhra king becomes independent regional Ruler with the demise of Pallava king Parameshwara -2

    After Narasimhavarman - 1 from the year A.D.668 the Kalabhras remained as subordinate kings of Pallavas until the demise of Parmeswarawarmen - 2. Immediately after with the confusion in the Pallava kingdom over the next successor, the son of Hiraniyavarman became the next Pallava king in the absence of legimate heirs of Parameswaravarman. During this period the Kalabhra king asserted his freedom from the Pallavas and continued as the regional ruler.

    The following References confirm the above:


    (19) Nandivarma Pallava defeats the regional Kalabhra king and puts an end to Kalabhra dynasty

    During the period of rule of Nandivarman - 2 (A.D.710-775) of Pallava country, he waged war with the other countries in South India, including the regional Kalabhra king who was completely defeated and apparently met his death. This war in A.D.775 put a permanent end to the Kalabhra kings as Sittrarasers (regional Rulers) of Tamil Nadu. The Kalabhras completely disappeared during the periods of the Medieval - Paandiyas and Cholas.

    Important Note:

    Around A.D.775 we find Kalabhras have completely disappeared from the Tamil Nadu Historical scene either as 'Perarasers' or 'Sitrarasers' of any region in Tamil Nadu. There are no Granite - Temple or Herostone Inscriptions, or Copper Plate Grants in entire Tamil Nadu made by Chera, Chola, Paandiya, Pallava kings or made by Kalabhra kings themselves, or any ancient Tamil Literary, Historical or Religious - Documents, or from any sources in the neighbouring Countries available to us today, confirming that Kalabhra kings ruled any region of Tamil Nadu even after A.D.775. The situation was exactly the same in connection with their presense even before the year A.D.467.

    The following References confirm the above:

    "......Nanthivarman entra pirasiththamaana peyarulla Arasan ippoluthu irunththaan"

    "....Ukkiramaakavum periyathakavum nirainthathaakavum ulla sareeraththaik kandathum undaana payaththaal aetpatta nadukkaththinaal aayuthangkalai naluvavitta Kerala, Chola, Paandiya, Malavarkalum,Kalapprarar (Kalabhra), Paanar (Baanas), muthaliya mannarkalum.....pujiththu aetkkum aanaikalai idupavanum perum pukal padaiththavanum uyarnththavanumaana intha Arasan poomiyai parpaaliththu vanthaan....."
    Pulloor Copper Plate Grant - of Nanthivarman - 2, Thirty Pallava Copper Plates published by The Tamil Varalattru Kalagam, page 197-198

    "......ellaa arasarkaludaiya manimudikalum uraayum thiruppaathankalai udaiya Sri Nanthivarman thoantrinaan.....avanudaiya (aranmanai) vaayitpuraththil Vallapar, Kalappira (Kalabhra), Keralar, Paandiyar, Cholar, Thuluvar, Konkanar innum mattroar ulle nulainththu sevika samayaththai etirpaarththu nerukkikondu irrukkintranar......"
    Kottrangkudi Copper Plate Grant - of Nanthivarman - 2, Thirty Pallava Copper Plates published by The Tamil Varalattru Kalagam, page 246


    Most Important Notes:

    (1) The Kalabhra Period of Tamil Nadu is not from A.D.250 to A.D.570 as concluded earlier by some Scholars, but as "Perarasers" from A.D.467-570, and as "Sittrarasers" from A.D.570-775. The Kalabhras were referred to in Tamil as Kalappirar or Kalappaalar and were the natives of Kalavara Nadu, South Karnataka around Nandi Hills also known as Kalabhra Hills (closer to the present Bangalore). They practised Samana Samayam (the Jain Religion).

    During the period from A.D.250 to A.D.467 too Tamil Nadu was ruled by it's traditional Chera, Chola and Paandiya kings. The false deductions made by some Scholars that this period was the "Irunda Kaalam" (dark period) of the history of Tamil Nadu, was due to they not being able to trace details of the kings of Chera, Chola, Pandiya dynasties of this period, and also due to the wrong conclusions arrived at by few Scholars that Kalabhras invaded Tamil Nadu around A.D.250 and by some Scholars as around A.D.350. However the fact remains that the Kalabhras invaded Tamil Nadu only around the year A.D.467

    (2) The Muththaraiyar kings have no connection whatsoever with the Kalabhra kings, but were the 'native Tamil Chieftains' of Tamil Nadu, who ruled regions around Senthalai in the present Pudukkottai region and later from Thanjavur during the period of Pallavas. They were referred to as Kallar, Kalvar, or Kalvara being their traditional caste names. The Muththaraiyar king Maaran bored a title as 'Sri Kalvar Kalvan' and as 'Sri Kalvara Kalvan'. These caste names of Muththaraiyar kings has no relations with the names Kalabras, Kalavara, Kalappirar or Kalappaalar. Muththaraiyar kings practised Saiva Samayam, but patronised Samana Samayam and Vainava Samayam.

    (3) The Mudiraj community were the 'traditional natives of Andhra Pradesh', and have no historical connections with the Kalabhra kings from south Karnataka and the native Tamil Muttaraiyar kings who ruled regions of Tamil Nadu during the period of Pallavas and medieval Cholas. The small presence of the Mudiraj community in Tamil Nadu occured during the period of Nayakkar kings (from Andhra Pradesh) ruling over Thanjavur (A.D.1520-1674), Senji(Gingee) (A.D.1520-1640), and Mathurai (A.D.1520-1736), with the heavy inflow of Telugu people from Andhra Pradesh into Tamil Nadu to work under the Nayakkar kings.

    Note: The foregoing will be reviewed frequently 'corrected where necessary', and 'added with additional informations with eviidence' as and when they surface.


    ---------------------------------------UNDER fURTHER CONSTRUCTION----------------
    Last edited by virarajendra; 24th March 2015 at 04:22 PM.

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