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Thread: Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Sri Lanka

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    Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Sri Lanka

    (1) The Re-Emergence of the Chola Kingdom

    From the beginning of the second half of nineth century, the Cholas gradually re-emerged as a powerful ruling dynasty of Tamilnadu, after a long spell of nearly six centuries both in political obscurity and as feudatory of the Kalabra, Pallava and Pandiya dynasties of South India.

    (2) Vijayalaya Chola reigns from his capital Palaiyarai in Tamilnadu

    In the line of these Cholas sprung king Vijayalaya Chola (A.D.849-881) ruling a small central region of the present Tamilnadu state with his capital at Palaiyarai, and as a feudatory of the Pallava king Nandivarman - 3 (A.D.826-850).

    (3) Vijayalaya Chola builds his new capital at Thanjavur

    In the year A.D.852 Vijayalaya Chola waged war with the Muttaraiyar king Sattan Paliyilli (A.D.826-852) in the neighbouring east, and captured his territory of Thanjavur.

    Vijayalaya Chola built his new capital at Thanjavur with all facilities of a city commencing with the construction of a temple to the Goddess Kali named as Nisumbasudani. The Chola country of this period covered the central and the eastern regions of the present Tamilnadu state.

    (4) King of Sri Lanka awaits to avenge the invasion of his country by Pandiya

    During this period the Sri Lankan king Sena-2 (A.D.851-885) was awaiting an opportune moment to avenge the devastation and disgrace caused to Sri Lanka by an earlier invasion of the Pandiya king Srimara Sri Vallaba (A.D.835-862) which took place during the rule of Sena-1(A.D.831-851).

    (5) Rebellious son of Pandiya seeks help from Sri Lanka

    Towards this time a son of Srimara Sri Vallaba by one of his other queens, named Maya Pandiya claimed rights to succession against Varaguna Pandiya-2 the legitimate heir to the throne by the chief queen of Srimara Sri Vallaba. This son with dissension with his father over same resolved to take over the Pandiya kingdom to himself and went to Sri Lanka to seek the assistance of the king Sena-2.

    (6) Sri Lankan forces invades and captures the Pandiya country

    Taking opportunity of the prevailing conditions, the king of Sri Lanka the Sena-2 sent a large army under his general named Kutthaka, who crossed seas from the port of Mahatittha the present Mantota and invaded the Pandiya country in the year A.D.862, killed Srimara Sri Vallaba laid waste the region, and captured the capital city of the Pandiya the Madurai. However Varaguna Pandiya - 2 escaped capture and went into hiding.

    (7) The Sri Lankan forces crown the rebellious son on the Pandiya throne

    The Sri Lankan forces thereafter anointed as the king the rebellious son of Srimara Sri Vallaba the Maya Pandiya who seeked their assistance to gain the throne, and returned to Sri Lanka with much of the earlier lost treasures of the Sinhala country.

    (8) Pallava king Nirupatunga assists Varaguna to regain throne

    Varaguna Pandiya-2 requested the assistance of the Pallava king Nirupatunga (A.D.850-882) to retrieve his throne. The Pallava king along with Vijayalaya Chola and his allies invaded and defeated the rebellious son of Pandiya and drove away the remaining Sinhala forces and reinstated Varaguna Pandiya - 2 (A.D.862-880) on throne at Madurai in the year A.D.862.

    (9) Athiththa Chola ascends the Chola throne

    Vijayalaya Chola appointed his son Athiththa Chola (A.D.871-907) as his co-regent in the year A.D.871. He succeeded on the Chola throne at Thanjavur in the year A.D.881 with the demise of Vijayalaya Chola.

    (10) Athiththa Chola recovers the regions of the Chola country

    During his period in the year A.D.880 Varaguna Pandiya - 2 waged war with the Pallava king Nirupathunga successor to Nandivarman, with whom he had friendly relations earlier. The Athitha Chola assited the Pallavas against Pandiya in this war at Thiruppurambiam. The Pallavas won the battle and Athiththa Chola too was benefitted by being able to recover the entire Chola country. In the year A.D. 890 he invaded and captured the Thondainadu and put an end to the Pallava dynasty with Aparajitha (A.D.882-890) the son of Nirupathunga.

    (11) Paranthaha Chola captures the Pandiya kingdom

    Athiththa died while in Thondainadu, and was suceeded by his son king Paranthaha Chola (A.D.907-954) at Thanjavur, who in the year A.D.910 captured the Pandiya country the southern region of the present Tamil Nadu state. The Pandiya king Rajasimhan-3 (A.D.905-921) few years after his defeat, escaped from his hiding to Sri Lanka and requested the Sinhala king Kasyappa-5 (A.D.913-923) to assist him in regaining his kingdom.

    (12) Pandiya King's second battle with Paranthaha Chola

    In the year A.D.919 king Kasyappa sent a large Sinhala force under his general Saka Senapathi to assist Rajasimhan to recapture his kingdom. However Paranthaha's forces along with the forces of his ally the Kannada king Piruthivi-2, defeated the combined forces of Pandiya and the Sinhala forces, in a deadly battle at Vellur.

    (13) Pandiya King escapes to Sri Lanka with Regalia

    However the Pandiya king Rajasimhan escaped capture by Cholas, and went to Sri Lanka with his crown and the other royal insignia and took shelter in the Sinhala kingdom. He seeked further assistance from the new Sinhala king Dappula-4 (A.D.923-934) in regaining his kingdom. He on not receiving favourable response from Dappula-4 due to heavy repraisels from his nobles against same, left back his crown and insignia with him, and took asylum in the Chera country the present south Kerala state.

    (14) Paranthaha Chola wages war with Sri Lanka

    Paranthaha Chola now requested the next successor to the Sri Lanka throne the Udaya-3 (A.D.934-937) to return the Pandiya crown and insignia, and on the latter's refusal Paranthaha in the year A.D.944 crossed seas to Sri Lanka, and defeated the king Udaya-3 who retreated from his capital Anuradhapura to Rohana in south Sri Lanka with the Pandiyan treasure.

    (15) Paranthaha Chola fails in his mission

    Paranthaha finding difficult to penetrate into Rohana returned to Chola country with much booty and treasures from Lanka, but failing in his mission to retrieve the Pandiyan crown and royal insignia from king Udaya-3. However Paranthaha with the defeat of the Sinhala king assumed the new title the Singhalanthahan.

    (16) Gandarathiththa Chola looses Pandiya Country

    Paranthaha-1 was suceeeded on the Chola throne at Thanjavur by his second son Gandarathiththa Chola (A.D.950-957), who spent almost his entire period of rule in spiritualism as an ardent Saivite, and finally was counted as one of the 63 great Saiva Saints of TamilNadu.

    (17) Arinjaya's short rule of Chola kingdom

    He was followed by his younger brother Arinjaya Chola (A.D956-957) at Thanjavur, who had very short rule.

    (18) Chola Forces goes to Sri Lanka to assist the Commander Sena

    He was followed by his son Sundera Chola (A.D.957-973) on the throne at Thanjavur. During this period the Sri Lankan commander with much animosity with his own king Sena-5 (A.D972-981) came to Chola country and seeked military assistance from Sundera Chola, who sent as much as 95,000 troops to Sri Lanka led by thr Chola General Paranthahan Siriya Velan in A.D.954.

    (19) Chola General Meets his death in the battle in Sri Lanka

    In this battle Sena-5 was defeated and escaped to Rohana, but the Chola commander met his death which made the forces to return to their country.

    (20) Rule of Utthama Chola

    After the death of Sundera Chola in A.D.973 the lawful successor prince Rajaraja Chola gave way to his paternal uncle Utthama Chola (A.D.973-985) who was craving for the Chola throne, on the understanding that the succession to the throne at Thanjavur to be passed on to prince Rajaraja after the death of Utthama Chola.

    (21) Rajaraja-1 succeeds on the Chola throne

    Accodingly in the the year A.D.985 Rajaraja - 1 came into power with the demise of Utthama Chola. He expanded his kingdom into an empire by his wits and political ingenuity, conquering many kingdoms both adjacent and far from his own Chola kingdom and ruling from his captal city Thanjavur of the present Tamil Nadu State, conquering almost three quarter of the then India.

    (22) Rajaraja-1 invades the island of Sri Lanka

    During this period in Sri Lanka king Mahinda-V (A.D.981-1029) ruling from Anuradhapura in the wake of an internal rebellion by the Kerala mercineries of his troops retreated to Rohana in A.D.991, and continued to rule the southern half of the island.

    This left the northern half in turmoil with no king for nearly eleven years with various chieftains yeilding power from time to time over territories in this region and a state of anarchy prevailed. Rajaraja taking advantage of the situation crossed seas and invaded Sri Lanka in his seventeenth year the A.D.1002. His great army known as "muntrukai mahasenai' sacked the seaport city of Mathottam the present Mantota and the interior capital of Anuradhapura, and annexed the northen half of the island to his empire.

    Rajaraja too on his victory over the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka assumed the a new title as Sinhalanthahan, and a village in Thanjavur in Tamilnadu was named after this title as Singalanthahacchcheri.

    (23) Polonnaruwa made the Chola capital in Sri Lanka

    He named the captured northern half of Sri Lanka as Mummudi-Cholamandalam after another of his titles, and further divided and named them into various provinces. The present Polonnaruwa which formed a part of the province Nigarili Cholavalanadu was made the new capital of his island territorial possessions and was named as Jananathamangalam also known as Jananathapuram.

    (24) Tamil Trading Settlements established in Sri Lanka

    During this period of Chola occupation the Tamil trading guilds Thisaiayiratthu Annuruvar also known as Nanadesi Thisaiayirathu Annuruvar and Nanadesis, the Valanjiyar and Nagaratthar who were already trading in Sri Lanka further increased their activities in the Island.

    At Kataneri the present Vahalkade in the Anuradhapura district the guild of Thisaiayyiratththu Annuruvar established a mercantile town known as Virapattinam. Among the members of this guild was a trader of high rank named Kanavathi Cholan alias Mavittamuriparan, a Chetti trader from Java and an officer in charge of a mint in this town.

    At Padaviya in the Anuradhapura district too there was a trading establishment of this guild , and also a Siva temple in this area under their protection. One of the traders here too was of a high rank in the trading guild named Uththama Cholan alias Mandalattu Chetti, and another named Kottaikutpatan Cholan alias Kollarun Cinkan.

    At Viharehinna near Moragolla in north Matale district Thisaiayiratthu Annuruvar had established another mercantile town known as the Virapattinam.

    There had been further trading establishements of this guild at Ilakattu Eba in Chilaw district, and at Detiyamulla and Gaitenpitiya both in Kurunagala district.

    In Polonnaruwa near the Rankot Vihara there had been a Buddhist Vihare known as Bholapalli at the village Bahicintai under the patronage of the guild of Thisaiayiraathu Annuruvar.

    (25) Chola officials build Hindu Temples in Sri Lanka

    During this period Chola Officials and Tamil traders built many Hindu Temples for worship of Siva and Vishnu in the northern half of Sri Lanka.

    A Siva temple was built at Jananathamangalam also known as Jananathpuram the present Polonnaruwa in the province of Nigarili Cholavalanadu alias Pulainari, and was named as Vanavanmadevi Iswarem after the queen of Raja Raja - 1.

    They built another Sive temple at Padaviya in the Anuradhapura disctrict and named it as Ravikulamaanikka Iswarem after one of the titles of Rajaraja. Many Chola officials and traders around fifteen of them have made endowements to this temple, and Chenkulavan Katampan being one of them made donations in the year A.D.1005.

    A further Siva Temple was built at Padaviya and was named as Uththamar Koyil and there was also a brahmin settlement established in this area known as 'Sripathi grama'

    There was yet another Siva temple constructed at Atakade in the Anuradhapura district and named as Uththama Chola Iswarem after the Rajarja's predecessor to the Chola throne.

    Chola officials also established settlements of Brahmin priests on the lands of Rajavichadira valanadu covering the present Kantalai in the Trincomalee district, and named it as Rajaraja Chathurvedimangalam.

    The region of Mathottam in Mannar alias Arunmolideva Valanadu was renamed as Rajarajapuram, and a Siva temple was constructed by Nallur Kilavan Taalikkumaran a Chola Officer in Sri Lanka during this period, and was named as Rajaraja Iswarem. He also made arrangements to celeberate the annual festival of Vaikasi Visakam elaborately at this temple every year in the month of May.

    During this period Cholas built another Siva temple at Rajarajapuram alias Mathottam the present Mannar district and named it as Thiruraameeswarem.

    The artisans from the Chola country who came to Sri Lanka during this period were employed in the construction of these temples and in the casting of the bronze statues of Hindu deities for their shrines.

    (26) Mathotam made a seaport city of Cholas

    The village of Mathottam alias Rajarajapuram in Mannar being the closest port of call to the Chola warriors from the mainland developed into an important city with many highways. One of these highways was named as Rajaraja perumtheru. Another highway from this city lead to Arulmolithevavalanadu apparently the present Anuradhapura.

    The Chola Officers also built an irrigation tank near Iluppaikkadavai known as Cholamandalakkulam, north of Mathottam in the Mannar district. There had been many weaving looms in this city and tax collectors collected tax on these weaving looms and for transport through the highways.

    (27) Chola Officers rebuild Buddhist Temple in Trincomalee

    Chola officers further re-constructed Velgam Vihare also known as Sadda Vihare, a Buddhist Temple at the present Tincomalee district, and named it as Rajaraja Perumpalli. The location of this Buddhist temple which was earlier known as Panchasanthulagama was renamed as Sthavayasa Ramyana Manavatinanadu. The region of Trincomalee which formed a Chola province was known as Melaithuru Sriyathan Parakesari Valanadu.

    (28) Village revenues from Sri Lanka for Chola Temple

    Rajaraja in the year A.D.1011 donated the revenues from the villages Maappisimbu Kottiyara re-named as Rajaraja Valanadu, and Kannakkan Kottiyara re-named as Vikkrama Cholavalanadu both in the Trincomalee district, for the upkeep of the great Rajarajeswarem Temple built by him at Thanjavur in the Chola country in Tamilnadu, a stupendous masterpiece and a living monument of the Chola Temple architecture dedicated to God Siva.

    (29) Chola emperor Rajaraja issues new coinage in Sri Lanka

    Rajaraja during his rule of north Sri Lanka issued gold coins with the legend "Sri Rajaraja" inscribed on them. These were equivalent to ten kalanju or units of gold. There were also coins issued in base metal having the same legend Rajaraja. He also issued a base gold coin called the Madai, and the coin too bore his name Sri Rajarja in Nagari letters.

    (30) Further Hindu Temples built in Sri Lanka

    During the rule of Rajaraja more Hindu temples were continued to be built at Polonnaruwa, Padaviya, and Mantota and charitable endowments were made to them by Traders and Chola Officers stationed in Sri Lanka. In the year A.D.1013 endowments were made by a Chola officer Arankan Iramesan to Utthamachola Iswarem built earlier at Atakada.

    (31) Rajendra Chola ascends the throne as the next Chola Emperor

    In the year A.D.1014 Rajaraja Chola died after twenty nine years of rule, and was succeeded by his son the Rajendra Chola-1 on the throne of the Chola Empire.

    (32) Chola activities in Sri Lanka during the period of Rajendra Chola

    Cholas continued to build Hindu Temples in Sri Lanka, and yet another Siva temple was built at the present Medirigiriya in the Polonnaruwa district. The location of this temple which was earlier known as Mandalakiri was renamed as Niththavinodapuram. The Temple too was named as Pandithachola Iswarem after Rajendra Chola'a title, and in A.D.1014 Valavan Pitan Caravan of the trading guild of the Ilaya Mumummudichola Anukkar of the village Perumpatai provided gifts in the name of his son Narayanan.

    (33) Further Chola activities in Sri Lanka

    During this period in Sri Lanka, a high ranking officer of Rajendra Chola named Sirukulaththurudaiyan made donations to the Siva temple built earlier at Rajarjapuram, named Thirurameeswarem.

    Chola officers also consecrated the images of the deities of Pallikondar and Alahiya Manavalar at the temple of Vaanavanmadeviyar Iswarem in Polonnaruwa.

    In the year A.D.1024 apparently a Chola Officer made endowments for lighting of an oil lamp at the Velgam Vehare alias Rajarajaperumpalli at Sathvayasa Ramyana Manavatina naadu in the present Trincomalee district. Another Chola native of the village Pakavan Puthukkudi in the north Sri Lanka named Athithaperraraiyan too made donation of 84 cows to maintain burning of a lamp at this Buddhist temple. In this same year Tariyanan Puvanatevan of Kollam granted one lamp and four kasu to Velgam Vehere as donation.

    In the year A.D.1027 Pattaravita Raman of Manavattulakamam in Mevannanadu alias Parakesari valanadu granted 35 cows and 5 buffaloes to the Buddha in the temple of VelgamVehera alias Rajarajaperumpalli.

    (34) Chola conquest of whole of Sri Lanka

    Rajendra Chola now turned his attention on his expeditions overseas and ambitious of suduing whole of Sri Lanka, in the year A.D. 1017 sent an army led by the commander -in-chief and commissioner Jeyamkondan alias Muventha Velar which crossed over and conquered the southern half of Sri Lanka and brought the whole island under the Chola yoke.

    The king Mahinda-5 ruling the southern half of Sri Lanka was captured with his queen, daughter and articles of regalia, and taken prisoners to Chola kingdom by this Commander.

    (35) Chola Forces recover the Pandyan Regalia from Sri Lanka

    The Chola Forces also recovered the items of Regalia and crown of the king Rajasimhan (A.D.900-920) of the Pandiya country in Tamilnadu which were earlier left by him with the Sri Lankan king Dappula-4 (A.D.923-934), after his defeat by the Cholas in A.D.1017. These items too were transported to the Chola country.

    (36) Rajendra Chola appoints a viceroy in Sri Lanka

    Rajendra Chola appointed one of his sons as the viceroy in Sri Lanka with the title Ilangaiyarkku Iraivan who was also known as Chola Ilangeswaren alias Sri Sangapanmar. The region in Polonnaruwa where he resided and ruled was known as Chola Samasthanam. (Solasamasthanaya of Polonnnaruwa).

    (37) Chola Emperer Rajendra issues new coinage in Sri Lanka

    Rajendra during his rule of whole of Sri Lanka, issued gold coinage with the legend "Yuddha Malla" inscribed on them referring to him as a great warrior.

    (38) Chola activities in Sri Lanka during Rajendra Chola

    In the year A.D.1020 a Chola General stationed in Sri Lanka known as Jeyamurinaadalver made some donations probaly to a Hindu temple at the present Sangili Karandava.

    In the year A.D.1027 the member of the Permakkal probably made some donation at the Muttankai Koyil Perunguri of the Bramadesam Rajaraja Chathurvedimangalam of Rajendra Cholavalanadu alias Rajavitchadira valanadu. During the rule of Chola Illangeswaradevan some donations has been made to the temple Sri Macchukeswarem at Rajendra Chola valanadu

    Chola officials also established settlements of Brahmin priests on lands at Rajendra Cholavalanadu

    During the period of Rajendra Chola - 1's rule a member of the Tamil Trading Guild the Thisai Aayiraththu Iynnoortruvar of that period has built an Ambalam (a resting hall) at the present Aththarakuliya, Eriyawa in the Puttalam district of Sri Lanka.

    (39) Death of king Mahinda-V and loss of south Sri Lanka

    In Sri Lanka the king Mahinda-5 who was taken prisoner to the Chola country lived in captivity for twelve years and died in A.D.1029.

    With his death there rose a rebellion in Sri Lanka under prince Kasiyappa against the Cholas, in which the Cholas lost hold of the southern territory after twelve years of rule over the whole island.

    (40) Vikkramabahu attempts capture of north Sri Lanka

    From A.D.1029 Kasiyappa the son of Mahinda -5 ruled the southern half of Sri Lanka with his capital at Rohana under the royal name Vikkramabahu. He then planned to capture north Sri Lanka and advanced his forces towards this direction.

    Prince Rajadhiraja on behalf of his father Rajendra Chola acted swiftly and sent an expedition which defeated the Vikkramabahu's forces and captured his crown. Vikkramabahu however escaped to south Sri Lanka and continued to rule from Rohana.

    (41) Continuation of Chola activities in Sri Lanka

    Cholas continued their hold on the northen half of Sri Lanka. During this period the names of few Chola provinces in north Sri Lanka were changed. The district where the Velgam Vihare was situated was re-named from Sathvayasa Ramyana Manavatinanadu to Abayasiriyathannadu, and from Melaithuru Sriyathan Parakesari valanadu to Rajendrasimha valanadu.

    It appears around this time time there had been a Buddhist temple at Anuradhapura named Madhavan Makothai Palli to which Tamil Artisons etc jointly did renovations.

    It appears it was during this time the Cholas exacavated a tank named as Cholamandalakkulam on the east and in the close proximity to the present Iluppaikkadavai in Mannar district.

    In the year A.D.1031 (8th year) of Sri Sangavanmar Udayar Chola Ilangeswara Devar some donations have been made to the Mathsayakeswaram Udayaar the presiding deity of the (Siva) temple at Rajendrasingha Valanadu of Mumudi Cholamandalam (the northern half of Sri Lanka) the present Vilvapathirar temple at Manangkerni in the Trincomalee district, by a Chola officer named Velan Kanapathi of Rajendrasingha Valanadu.

    Further in the year A.D.1033 (10th year) during the viceroyalty of Sri Sangavanmar Udayar Chola Ilangeswara Devar, the officials of high office (perunguri perumakkal) of Rajraja Chathurvedimangalam encompassing the Rajendra cholavalandu and Rajavitchadira valanadu at the present Kantalai in Trincomalee district, met at the Siva shrine known as Muththangai temple, and diiscussed and approved the plans for inprovising more facilities from the irrigation channel named Vikkrama Chola vaikkal named after one of Rajendra's titles.

    During this period another Siva temple which was built and named after one of the titles of Rajendra Chola namely Panditha Cholan as Panditha Choliswarem at Matalakiri, which was renamed as Nittavinodapuram the present Medirigiriya.

    In A.D.1037 a Tamil devotee Amuthan Chatan alias Kayavahu Kodi made donations of 10 cows and 10 oxen and ghee for lamp

    In the year A.D.1040 a Chola officer Arankan Ramesan had made an endowment of 50 coconut trees for lighting five Santhi Vilakku (temple premises lamps) at Uttama Cholaeswarem at Teliyalperu of Kallai at present Attakada, and further donated three Veli lands with fence and 20 cows for the lighting of a Nontha Vilakku (a sacred lamp within this temple -daily).

    (42) Futher developments in Sri Lanka

    In south Sri Lanka Vikkramabahu again made preparations for a further assault on the north, but died before his attempt in the year a.D.1041.

    He was followed by the ambitious Sinhala general Kitti who was in turn killed by Mahalnakitti within eighty days and assumed power at Rohana. He ruled from here for three years upto A.D.1044.

    (43) Rajendra Chola - 1 issues gold coins

    Rajendra issued a small Chola coin of base gold having on its obverse the Chola seated tiger flanked by the Pandiya fishes and the Chera bow all under a canopy, and on the reverse with the legend Yuddha Malla in the Nagari Script.

    (44) Rajadhiraja Chola -1 ascends on the throne of the Chola empire

    In the year A.D.1044 Rajendra Chola died and was succeeded by his son Rajadhiraja Chola. At the time of his acension Sri Lanka was still under the Cholas.

    Rajadhiraja appointed his brother as the viceroy king in north Sri Lanka with the title Illangaiyarkku Irraivan.

    (45) Rajadhiraja Chola sends fresh expeditions to south Sri Lanka

    In Sri Lanka in the year of A.D. 1044 Mahalanakitti had to face fresh attacks of the Chola forces stationed in north Sri Lanka in which he was defeated and again Rohana fell into the hands of the Cholas. All his treasures were transported to the Chola kingdom and consequently he commited suicide.

    During this time Vikkrama Pandian the son of Mahalanakitti born to a Pandian queen from Tamilnadu fled to India.

    (46) Vikkrama Pandian attempts to regain Rohana

    However at a latter stage he came to Rohana from his hideout in Tuluva country in India and was trying for three years to gradually eastablish himself over this territory.

    Rajadhiraja sent an expedition and defeated him in A.D.1047 where he lost his crown to Cholas, and went to his hiding in Rohana.

    (47) Rule of North Indian king in south Sri Lanka

    During this period the north Indian king Virasalamehan alias Jegathipala from Kanyakubja near present Ayodhiya came to Sri Lanka and captured Rohana, killed Vikkrama Pandian and ruled for a period of four years.

    In the year A.D.1051 Rajadhiraja sent a further expedition which defeated this North Indian king and captured Rohana again, with his crown, queen, and daughter who were transported to the Chola kingdom.

    (48) Brahmins settled at Kantalai in Sri Lanka

    During this period the Chola officers in Sri Lanka established a settlement of Brahmin priests at Kantalai in the present Trincomalee district and named it as Jeyamkonda Chathurvedimangalam after one of the titles of Rajadhiraja.

    (49) Rajadhiraja appoints his heir apparent

    In the same year Rajadhiraja made his younger brother Rajendra -2 as his heir apparent and co-ruler of the Chola empire.

    (50) Further Chola war in Sri Lanka

    Again in Sri Lanka in A.D.1053 Parakrama Pandian alias Sri Vallaba Madanarajan the son of Vikkrama Pandian tried to release Rohana from Chola sway. Rajadhiraja sent another expedition which killed and captured his crown.

    (51) Rajendra Chola - 2 ascends on the Chola throne

    Rajadhiraja died in A.D.1054 in the battlefield in a war with the western Chalukiyas of the present Karnataka state in the Indian mainland. His younger brother Rajendra -2 who was with him at the warfront proclaimed himself as the emperor , and crowned himself as the successor to the Chola throne.

    (52) Rajendra Chola wages war with Sri Lanka

    In A.D. 1055 again fresh eruptions took place at Rohana in Sri Lanka. Manabarna a decendent of the earlier Sinhala king with the assistance of a Kalinga prince of India the Virasalamehan, was taking efforts to re-establish himself at Rohana.

    Rajendra sent an expedition to Sri Lanka defeated and killed Virasalamehan and took the two sons of Manabharna as captives. The general Jeyamurinadalvar was left in command of the Chola forces stationed in Sri Lanka.

    Rajendra Chola-2 issued a rare silver coin of the Sri Lanka type showing on the obverse the legend Sri Rajendra in Nagari letters and the Chola seated tiger on the reverse.

    (53) Other events during the rule of Rajendra Chola - 2

    In he year A.D.1056 Valavan Pitan Caravan of the Ilaiya Mummuti Chola Annukkar and of the Perumpatai granted 26 cows for maintaining a lamp granted in the name of his son Narayanan to the Lord of Padith Chola Iswarem.

    In the same year A.D.1056 the Chola High Officer in Sri Lanka of Rajendra Chola - 2 who won the battle at Koppam (in present Karanataka) - namely Alakan Purushoththaman Seer Pallavaraayan Muuventha Velaan, built a Vishnu temple named Mummudi Chola Vinnakaram in south Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, and granted Kavipeeli and Kudai (umbrella) for God Manavaalar (Vishnu)
    of this temple.

    (54) Rajendra Chola - 2 names his heir apparent

    Rajendra in the year A.D.1062 named his youngest brother Virarajendra as his successor, with the premature death of his son, and his younger brother Rajamahendra.

    (55) Virarajendra Chola ascends throne as the next Chola emperor

    In the year A.D.1063 with the death of Rajendra Chola - 2, Virarajendra Chola ascended the throne as the next successor to the Chola empire.

    (56) Vijayabahu establishes himself at Rohana in Sri Lanka

    During this period in Sri Lanka a local Kesadhatu chief named Kassapa set up his rule at Rohana with his seat at Kataragama. (Kathirkamam).

    The Chola general stationed at Polonnaruwa not withstanding this sent an army to Kattaragama against Kasspa in which the Chola forces were defeated and retreated to the north. Kassapa now set up his northern frontier at Rakkhapasana the present Rakwana and returd to Kattaragama.

    At this time the prince named Kitti the nephew of Vikkramabahu with his seat at Sippathalaka also in Rohana was taking efforts to establish himself in this province. But Kassayappa sent his forces to futile his attempt where he was defeated, and prince Kitti became the ruler of Rohana with royal name Vijayabahu.

    He then made preparations to wage war with the Cholas in north Sri Lanka, but Virarajendra ordered the Chola general Jeyamurinadalvar stationed at Polonnaruwa to invade Kataragama. The Chola forces plundered Kataragama, but Vijayabahu escaped capture and the Chola forces returned to Polonnaruwa. Vijayabahu again returned to Sippatthalaka with strong forces and gradually established himself in Rohona.

    (57) Vijayabahu seeks military aid from Burma

    He made fresh preparations to attack the Cholas, and sent a few years prior to A.D.1067 envoys with rich presents to king Anuruddha (A.D.1044-1077) of Pagan who was also the overlord of Rammanadesa both being in present Burma, requesting for military assistance against Cholas.

    King Anuruddha on the other hand with no intention to create any enmity with the powerful Cholas, and also to prevent any strain in relations with Sri lanka, sent instead many ships with various valuable gifts to king Vijayabahu, who now changed his abode to Tambalagama.

    (58) Virarajendra sends fresh expedition to Sri Lanka

    During this period in north Sri Lanka many inhabitants grew hostile and paid no tributes to the Chola kingdom. Vijayabahu too continued with his attempts to oust Cholas from Sri Lanka.

    This made Virarajendra to send a fresh expedition to Sri Lanka in the year A.D.1067 with many ships of large forces to the port of Mathottam in north Sri Lanka under the general Kurukulaththaraiyan.

    He successfully brought the Mummudi Chola mandalam the northern half of Sri Lanka under the Chola control. He then proceeded to Rohana with his forces where two mighty warriors of Vijayabahu, Ravideva and Cala joined the Chola forces and fought against him.

    In this battle the Chola general Kurukulatharaiyan, and another commander lost their lives. This made Chola forces more furious in which Rohana again fell into the hands of the Cholas who took Vijayabahu's queen captive with many treasures while he escaped to his hideout. Again the whole of Sri Lanka came under the Chola rule.

    (59) Virarajendra issues gold coin in Sri Lanka

    Virarajendra issued a gold coin so debased as to be hardly distinguishable from silver having the legend Sri Rajendrah in nagari letters and on the reverse the Chola tiger between two lamps all under a canopy.

    (60) Virarajendra Chola appoints his heir apparent

    In the year A.D.1067 Virarajendra named his son Adhirajendra Chola as the heir apprarent to the Chola throne and a co-ruler of the empire.

    (61) Kulothunga Chola succeeds on the throne of the Chola Empire

    In the year A.D.1070 with the death of Viarajendra a rebellion sparked off in the Chola country in which Adhirajendra was assasinated and a state of anrachy prevailed in the kingdom.

    His untimely death with no heir apparent to succeed paved way for prince Rajendra of Vengi Nadu, as the next legitimate successor to the Chola throne through his maternal side in the year A.D.1071 with the royal title Kulothunga Chola.

    (62) Vijayabahu saves Sri Lanka from Chola imperialism

    During this period in Sri Lanka the king Vijayabahu who earlier hid in the south after his defeat at the hands of the Cholas, gradually establised himself at Mahanagahula in the present Ambalangoda in south Sri Lanka, and struggled valiantly to relieve the island from the long standing grip of Cholas.

    In the year A.D.1088 he sent two seperate armies with large forces simultaneously to the north-central province of Sri Lanka against the Chola forces.

    The first unit of his troops intially captured the Chola strongholds at the villages Muhunnuru, Badalatthagalla, Vapinagara, Buddhigama, Tilagulla, Mahagalla, all in the Dakkinadesa the present Kurunagala district and proceeded to Anuradhapura. Here too Chola forces were defeated and the city of Anuradhapura was captured . These troops further perssued and defeated the Chola forces upto the seaport of Mathottam alias Mahathittha in Mannar district.

    The second unit of troops of Vijayabahu was directed to the eastern province avoiding the mountainous regions which defeated the Chola forces at Chagama in the south-central region of Sri lanka. When they reached Pullathinagara the present Polonnnaruwa the Sinhala generals requested Vijayabahu to join them quickly with further fresh forces.

    Vijayabahu highly taken up by the heroic deeds of his forces proceeded to Polonnaruwa with his valiant army from his town Mahanugala. After the brief stay on the way in the close vicinity of Mahiyangana Buddhist temple they reached Polonnaruwa along east coast.

    The Chola forces stationed at various places in the close vicinity all gathered immediately at Polonnaruwa and had a great battle with Sinhala forces. Vijayabahu's two great warriors Ravideva and Cala who joined the Chola forces earlier against him, now re-joined Vijayabahu and fought with determination to exterminate the Cholas, and ending up with the victory to Sinhala forces. Thus the Chola rule of the northern half of Sri Lanka came to an end after a period of 86 years continously in the year A.D.1088.

    Vijayabahu to commemorate his victory over Cholas in Sri Lanka, assumed the title "Satru Rajachola Kula-anthaha'.

    (63) Vijayabahu marries the Kanyakubja Pricess

    During this period the wife and the daughter of the north Indian king Jegathipala who were taken prisoners to Chola country after defeat at the hands of Rajadhiraja-1 earlier at Rohana, escaped from Chola country and came back to Sri Lanka.

    They met the king Vijayabahu who later married the daughter Leelawathie and took her as his first consort.

    (64) KulothungaChola attempts peace with Sri Lanka

    Kulothunga Chola on the reverse after a long weary expedition in the far east seems to have decided to carry the balance regnal years in peace and refrained from reacting further.

    In confirming his friendly relations he sought the hands of the king Vijayabahu's sister Mitta, but Vijayabahu with much animosity against Cholas preferred the Pandiya prince in marriage to his sister who were long time allies of the Sri Lankan kings.

    (65) The beginning of the disintegration o the Chola empire

    The loss of Sri Lanka from the fold of the Cholas marked the beginning of the gradual disintegration of the Chola overseas empire from its healm during the rule of Virarajendra.

    (66) King Vijayabahu of Sri Lanka plans war with Chola country

    Kulothunga to strengthen the good relations with Sri Lanka sent envoys with rich presents to king Vijayabahu. during this same period the Sinhala envoys who were on their way to Karnataka kingdom in the Indian Mailand were humiliated in the Chola country by some natives.

    Vijayabahu to avenge his anger over this incidence challenged Kulothunga for war through the same Chola envoys and gathered his troops at the seaports of Mathottam and Mattikavatatittha in the present Mannar district in the year A.D.1089.

    The Velaikkara forces of Chola who choose to stay back in Sri Lanka and serve the Sinhala king after their defeat by Vijayabahu earlier now revolted against him on his plan to wage war with their motherland.

    In the revolt they caused destruction around Pulaththinagara the present Polonnaruwa and captured the king's sister Mitta with her three sons. Vijayabahu escaped rebels and moved to south.

    However he returned back with his son Virabahu to Pulaththinagra defeated the rebels, released Mitta and her sons and established himself as the sole king of Sri lanka.

    (67) King Vijayabahu revives ambition to wage war with Cholas

    In the year A.D.1104 king Vijayabahu of Sri Lanka revived his ambition to fight the Cholas and awaited their forces at the ports of Mannar in response to his challenge. However in the absense of reaction from the Cholas he returned to his capital Polonnaruwa.

    (68) Velaikkara Forces undertake to protect the Buddhist temple

    King Vijayabahu in the year A.D.1114 ordered his official Deva Senavirattar to construct a Buddhist temple at Vijayarajapura. He on completion of same instructed the Velaikkara Forces of the Cholas that remained back in Sri Lanka to take charge of protecting this temple.

    All divisions of the Velaikkara forces, along with the Valanjiar, Nagaraththar and others took charge of this temple which was named as "Muntrukai Velaikkara Daladayaperumpalli", and jointly undertook the management and protection of this temple and all villages given to it as endowment. This they confirmed in Tamil on a stone slab planted in the Polonnaruwa district and also on copper plates.

    (69) Jayabahu succeeds Vijayabahu on Sinhala throne

    In the same year of A.D.1114 Vijayabahu died, and was succeeded by his brother Jayabahu as against the traditions of succession on Sri Lankan throne preventing Vikkramabahu - 2 the son of Vijayabahu from becoming the king.

    (70) Kulothunga gives his daughter in marraige to the Sri Lankan Prince

    Kulothunga with a view to strengthening the relations with Sri Lanka after the death of Vijayabahu, gave away one of his daughters namely Suthamallialvar in marriage to the prince Manabarna alias Paandiyanaar Viraperumal alias Virabahu the son of Mitta (the Vijayabahu's sister) by a Pandian Prince.

    (71) Kulothunga appoints his heir apparent

    Kulothunga Chola - 1 in A.D.1115 appointed his son Vikkrama Chola (A.D.1118-1135) as his heir apparent to the Chola Throne who assisted him in the administration of the Chola empire.

    (72) Vikkramabahu's Officer provides Endowments to temple in India

    During this period Uiyavandhan Thiruvannamalaiyan alias Vijayabahu Masathunayan the chief officer of Vikkramabahu with the normalised relations of Cholas with Sri Lanka after the death of Vijayabahu, built a holy Pilgrims Rest named as Maheswaren Madam at Kondakarudu Dakkarama on the banks of Godavari river in the Andhra Pradesh in India, situated near the temple of Narenthira Iswarem Udaiya Mahadevar.

    Later in the year A.D.1120 he gave black and brass utensils to Bhimeshwarem Udaya Mahadevar at Periya Dakkarambi in the Guddhavadinadu a subdivision of Gangaikonda Cholavalanadu on the occasion of the solar eclipse.

    (73) Kulothunga's daughter gives endowments to Siva temple in Sri Lanka

    In the year A.D.1122 Suthamallialvar daughter of Kulothunga Chola of the Chola country and the wife of Virapperumal who was the son of Mitta (sister Vijayabahu) by a Pandyan king, made donations to the Siva temple known as Vikkrama Salamega Iswarem in Magala alias Vikkirama Salamegapura in the present Budumuttawa in Nikaweratiya in Sri Lanka. She also donated ten kasu for maintaing the burning of a lamp, and a Thaaraa Nilai Villakku (standing brass lamp) of height three Saan (a measure) to this temple.

    The Chola Relations with Sri Lanka goes still further up to the last Chola king namely the Rajendra Chola - 3 (1246- 1279), which will be continued later.
    Last edited by virarajendra; 30th January 2014 at 03:16 PM.

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    excellent! very informative

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    Senior Member Regular Hubber Eelavar's Avatar
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    dear friend virarajendra,

    your post is excellent and very useful, thank you very much.

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    Brought forward for the benefit of new Readers

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    Senior Member Diamond Hubber PARAMASHIVAN's Avatar
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    Excellent ... Just saw this thread now!
    Om Namaste astu Bhagavan Vishveshvaraya Mahadevaya Triambakaya Tripurantakaya Trikalagni kalaya kalagnirudraya Neelakanthaya Mrutyunjayaya Sarveshvaraya Sadashivaya Shriman Mahadevaya Namah Om Namah Shivaye Om Om Namah Shivaye Om Om Namah Shivaye

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