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Thread: Origin & the spread of the Cult of Kannaki (Paththini)P3

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    The origin and the spread of the Cult of Kannaki (Paththini) - Part 3

    (14) Epilogue

    The Kannaki (Paththini) Cult was initiated by the Chera Emperor Cheran Chenguttuvan on the request of his Queen Venmaal after the great tragedy that took place at Mathurai, and at Neduverl Kuntram (at present Kumily) coupled with the miraculous events that took place therein, lead her to be elevated as a great woman of Godly nature and powers among the people triggering her worship as a Goddess. With the initiation of her worship by carving her statue and consecrating same in a temple specially built in granite with the Poosai Valipaadukal and Velvi Valipaadukal being conducted in the presense of many king of different countries made spread all over Chera country (Kerala), Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Tulu country of present Karnataka. With the Sanskritisation of religion in Tamil Nadu, during the time of Pallavas it appears Kannaki temples gradually were changed into various Amman temples, where as in some areas it was specifically known as Maari Amman.

    (15) Some confusions & contradictions on Silappathikaaram & Manimekalai made by few Scholars

    It is observed that some Scholars have expressed their views on the date of Silappathikaaram & Manimekalai on the contents of these two texts, which are much in contradictory to the informations we presently have, and needs immediate correction.

    The following URL helps us to have a study of the views of some Scholars on Silappathikaaram & Manimekalai
    http://controversialhistory.blogspot...-of-tamil.html


    (1) Contradiction: Scholar Swamikannu Pillai on the basis of astronomical data concluded that (the) period of (Silappathikaaram) was 756 C.E, where as Scholar Rajarao on (the) same basis concluded the date of Shilappadigaram as 465 C.E

    Answer: The two Scholars referred above have arrived at two different dates falling much far apart, eventhough they both based their findings on the same astronomical details given in Silappathikaaram. How much trust can anyone place to arrive at the date of Silappathikaaram by this 'unreliable method', based on scanty details.

    (2) Contradiction: As per Scholar K.K Pillai the probable composition (of Silappathikaaram) took place in 500 C.E, (while) Scholar Vaiyaapuri Pillai fixed the period at 800 C.E.

    Answer: I understand from another source that Scholar Vaiyaapuri Pillai fixed the date based on the etymological study of Tamil Language used in these two epics. The results arrived at by Scholars on the period of a Literary or Religious compositions purly on the linguistic and etymological basis, cannot always be taken as the positive guidance in estimating the period of a work. It could only be a rough guidance "in the absense of any other evidences," but not in the face of many other historical evidences which are already available in the text of these works.

    Further it is very unfortunate that these two Scholars failed to realize that during the period mentioned by them, the Kalabhra and Pallava kings have already gained grounds in Tamil Nadu. How is that there is no mention whatsoever about them in Silappathikaaram and Manimekalai, if they belonged to the period of 500 C.E or 800 C.E.

    Could it be confirmed by any Scholar, that the Yavanas (Greeks & Romans and Indo-Greeks) who were present in Tamil Nadu and India during the period of Silappathikaaram & Manimekalai, were also present even in 500 C.E or 800 C.E. - the period of Kalabras & Pallavas.

    The Sathakarni kings of the Sathavahana dynasty referred in Silappathikaaram too disappeared in the history of India by 300 C.E. So how could Silappathikaaram be dated to 500 C.E or 800 C.E.

    If we take the date given by the above two Scholars as that of Silappathikaaram, can any Scholar confirm that the great Kaviripoompattinam (Poompuhar) that existed "with the tall buildings of the Yavana (Romans) Traders" - as per Silappathikaaram too existed during the period of Kalabras & Pallavas who ruled Tamil Nadu. No - as Kaviripoompattinam (Poompuhar - the Chola seaport capital of this period) as mentioned in Silapathkaaram, has been swallowed up by the sea (Tsunami) just few years after the great tragedy at Mathurai, which too is confirmed in Silappathikaaram.

    My suggestion is that the Literary Scholars trying to fix the date of ancient Literary works should not base their conclusions purly on etymological & linguistic grounds, but should arrive at same paying much attention to the historical informations in those literary works, and co-relate them to the historical "time line" of Tamil Nadu and India. Hence these dates claimed by the above two Scholars could be rejected, but with much respect to them.

    (3) Contradiction: Scholar Prof K.A.N Shastri has declared that Shilappadigaram and Manimegalai are the two hoaxes of 800 C.E in which the author pretends to be contemporary of Senguttavan.

    Answer: The above reference to a statement "said to have been made by Prof K.A.N Sastri" is found to be totally in-correct, and I have still not come across of same in any books of this 'respected Scholar'.

    Even if it was made by 'some other Scholar', it is very unfortunate that he has made such a remark. Both Silappathikaaram and Manimekalai are by no means a hoax, as this "Cult of Kannaki" is existing even today nearly 1900 years later in some parts of Kerala, and 'to some extent' among the Sinhala Buddhist population & the Tamil Hindu population in Sri Lanka, and also in Tamil Nadu in transformed form as "Maari Amman Valipaadu".

    Again the dating of this Scholar too is wrong. As mentioned earlier if Silappathikaaram was of the period 800 C.E. then why is it the earlier Kalabras & subsequent Pallavas are not mentioned anywhere in these two Epics, and why are the Yavanas (Greeks & Romans) referred in these Epics didnot exist in the year 800 C.E in Tamil Nadu. Also why are the Sathavaahana kings mentioned in Silappathikaram too disppeared in the Indian History during this period of 800 C.E. I think who ever the Scholar is, he too have been mislead by Scholar Swamikannu Pillai's wrong prediction on the date of Silappathikaaram based on astronomical data in same.

    Also we are aware from the Velvikkudi cheppedukal, Seevaramangala cheppedukal, Sinnamanur cheppedukal, which speaks of Pandiya kings after king Kadungoan who relieved the Paandiya Nadu from the clutches of Kalabhra kings, have no mention whatsoever of Pandiyan Ariyapadai kadantha Neduncheliyan and Vetrivet Cheliyan of the Silappathikaaram period. Hence it is clear that it was long before the Kalabhra invasion of Tamil Nadu that these two king existed, and the two epics donot fall to the period mentioned by this Scholar being 800 C.E.

    Further in the core text of Silappathikaaram in 'Varam tharu Kaathai', and in the 'Pathikam' text of same, it is stated that Ilango Adikal was the younger brother of Cheran Chenguttuvan and (obviously) was his contemporary. He was present at the time the Poet Saaththanaar related the entire story of Kannaki to Cheran Chenguttuvan. Ilango Adikal was also present at the time of consecration of the Kannaki statue at the newly built temple at Kumily in Kerala as seen from the Silappathikaaram.

    (4) Contradiction: It has been pointed out in the above Website (URL given), as to how the king Kayavaaku of Silappathikaaram came to be known as the equivalent of king Gajabaahu of Sri Lanka.

    Answer: It should be noted the name Gajabaahu of the king of Sri Lanka has three Sinhalese alphabets, the "Ga", "Ja", and "Bha" as also in Sanskrit. There are no such alphabets in Tamil, and hence the Tamil equivalent of this name with the Tamil alphabets becomes Kayavaahu.

    (5) Contradiction: It has been also said elsewhere by some Scholars that the Gajabaahu under reference in Silappathikaaram is in fact the Gajabaahu - 2 and not Gajabaahu - 1 of Sri Lanka.

    Answer: It shoud be noted Gajabaahu - 2 ruled Sri Lanka from A.D.1131-1153. This period is long after the period of Chola supremacy over northern half of Sri Lanka from A.D.1002 to A.D.1078, which lasted 76 years. Hence how could Cheran Chenguttuvan, Paandiyan Neduncheliyan & Chola Nedumudikkilli, and the Roman Traders mentioned in Silappathikaaram, all be present during the period of Gajabahu - 2 being the 'post - medieval Chola period'. Further Sri Lankan chronicle named 'Rajavaliya' too positively attributes the Silappathikaaram connection to Gajabaahu - 1 and not to Gajabaahu - 2.

    The following URLs will help to do a study of the geneology of the Sri Lankan kings during the period of Gajabaahu - 1 & Gajabaahu - 2.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...E2.80.93436.29
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...2.80.931197.29

    (6) Contradiction: It has also been pointed out by some Scholars elswhere that the Silappathikaaram & Manimekalai were not true stories but created by Poet Ilango Adikal and Poet Saaththanaar as themes to their two epic poems, with events in the poetic works too created to draw the interest of the readers, and not a true story.

    Answer: I regret the Readers and Others citing the views of these Scholar's who have made wrong deductions on Silappathikaarem & Manimekalai, and request them to study through my Threads thoroughly, inclusive of the visits to the Websites given therein, and also to view the YouTube leads given to be more enlightened on this subject matter.

    Last edited by virarajendra; 7th March 2012 at 02:25 PM.

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    "Attukal Pongala" is a great "Pongal peru vilaa" celebrated at the "Bagawathi Amman" also known as "Attukal Devi" - temple {Temple of the "Kannaki (Amman)" of Tamil Silappathikaaram fame} in the region Attukal, at Thiruvananthapuram of Kerala, India - a very famous festival celebrated annually.

    -------------------------

    "Pongala (Ponkala) is a special naivedya made by the women to the Attukal Devi. The significance of Attukal Devi Temple Pongala is entered the Guinness Book of World Records is the largest gathering of women in the world in a single place on a single day irrespective of caste, creed or religion.

    The Attukal Pongala 2013 Festival begins on 18th February 2013 and concludes on 27th February 2013. The world famous Attukal Pongala is on February 26th 2013, Tuesday. Pongala ritual commences at 10:45 AM and its will be offered to Goddess at 02:30 PM on February 26th 2013" - as per Baghawathi Amman Temple, Attukal - Website.

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