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Thread: The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia & Thailand - P3

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    Author: Virarajendra

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    The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand & Cambodia - Part 3

    Under Construction

    Airlangga becomes the overlord of entire Java Island

    During the first expedition of Rajendra Chola - 1 in A.D.1025 Java didnot draw the attention and interest of the aggresive Cholas. Airlangga since then gradually conquered all other kingdoms in the east, central and west Java and celebrated his victory in the year A.D.1037 on the Karththikai Natchaththiram day as the great emperor of the island Java seated in his jewelled throne and rejoicing his great achievement.

    The reference to same in this inscription is as follows:

    "......matinggal tanaya dara tkaring rajadrabya rajawahana prakara, rika hlema nya irikang Saka kala 959 (959 + 78 = A.D.1038) repmanusup haji ri kapang mwang balanira samasih ri sira, kawnangta sira ri sarasarata wanipa pangan ha s panaka ta pa kan kanda sira de de Sri Maharaja apalinggih moloda ri singhasana sampan sangksipta ikang pralaya ri Yawadwipa....."

    Inscription of Airlangga from Pukangan Hyang in East- Java (Reading version - 2)
    Oud-Javaansche Ookonden - Nagelaten Transscripties, van wijlen Dr. J.L,Brandes, Uitgegeven door Dr. N.J.Krom - page 1393.

    " the year 959 (959 + 78 = A.D.1038) the lord of the Sakas on the new moon day of Kartika on Thursday the noble and illustrious king of the island of Java set himself on his jewelled throne with his feet placed on the heads of his enemies and is now rejoicing in his victory. And now the Royal fortune unable to fing anybody else, pressing with her fair armies deeply embraces Airlanggadeva who has conquered all the directions, east and others who has destroyed all his enemies, and who has now become the paramount ruler of the whole earth......"

    Inscription of Airlangga from Pucangan, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. (Reading version - 1)
    India & Java - Part 2 (Texts of) Inscriptions, page 72, verse 15 & 16

    Airlangga constructs an hermitage in East Java

    To comemorate this event in accordance with his vow that he would build a hermitage should he be able to vanquish all his enemies, Airlangga built a hermitage in the year A.D. 1037 named as "Sri Vijayasrama" (Sri Vijaya + Asrama) indicating his connection to the royal family of the Sri Vijaya empire of Sumatra, by he marrying the Sri Vijaya Princess Sri Sangiramawijaya Dharmaprasadottungadevi.

    The reference to same in this inscription is as follows:

    ''.......Naksatra Aswadewata tiyoga wawakarana bayabyamanda ka diwacanyyajna Sri Mawangsa Airlanggananta Wikkramotungadeva tinadah de raryan mahamantri i hino Sri Sangiramawijaya Dharmaprasotungadevi.......singhassana hadha karananyan sinaksat krtakenira prayojananira ginawayira patapan inaranan "Sri Vijaya Asrama" in sira ri samarakaryya kunang lwirnikkanang lmah i Turan Hyang cinusu paduka Sri Maharaja mangalor pangidulniya dpa 118 hinganya lori nya ki....."

    Inscription of Airlangga from Turan Hyang in East- Java
    Oud-Javaansche Ookonden - Nagelaten Transscripties, van wijlen Dr. J.L,Brandes, Uitgegeven door Dr. N.J.Krom - page 143.


    Here we note Airlangga has named the Ashrama he built as 'Sri Vijaya Ashrama" possibly in honour and memory of the great empire of Sumatra namely the Sri Vijaya. Here it is very clear he had some connection with the Sri Vijayan empire long before he became the emperor of whole of Java in A.D.1037. Hence this goes further to prove that the Sangiraama Vijaya Dharmaprasadotunggadevi was "undoubtedly" the daughter of the emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya was married to Airlangga in A.D.1021, in which year she was given the title and power as his "Mahamantiri (chief minister) Hino" as she was his Queen in East-Java, long before Rajendra Chola's forces captured Sri Vijaya.

    Rajendra Chola's forces invaded Sri Vijaya in the year A.D.1025. Hence it is very clear that Airlangga was only 25 years of age (A.D1025 - A.D.1000), and could not have been in a position at that time to assist his father-in-law at Sri Vijaya when the emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman was defeated and captured by the Cholas.

    The Chola trade with Java

    However there had been good relations between Java and Chola empire during the of Airlanga. Tamil traders flocked to the Javan ports which were located in the vicinity of the present Surabaya and Tuban in Java, and they were from the Chola country, Pandiya country and the Dravida which was the Thondai mandalam all being Tamil districts forming parts of the Chola empire.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    (4) The period of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 (A.D.1018-1054)

    Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 demised in th year A.D.1044 and his son Emperor Rajathiraja Chola - 1 (A.D.1018 -1054) ascended the throne of the Chola empire.

    At the time Rajathiraja Chola - 1 inherited the Chola Empire from his father the Rajendra Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1044, and the extent of the Chola Empire virtually remained same for 19 - years from the time of Rajendra Chola - 1 who formed this empire in the year A.D.1025 with Mahothai (present Kodungallur of Kerala) in the west, Ilangai (the present Sri Lanka) in the south, Gangai in the north and the Kadaarem (the present Kedah & Perak regions of peninsular Malaysia) in the east.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Svasti Sri Thingaler peravalar angkathir kadavul tholkulam vilangath thontri malkiya vada thisai Gangaiyum then thisai Ilangaiyum, kuda thisai Makothayum kuna thisai Kadaaramum thandinil konda thaathai than mandalam venkudai nilalena than kudai nilattri thisai thorum sengol otchchi.......Kovirasakesaripanmaraana udaiyar Sri Rajathirasthevarkku aandu......"

    South Indian Inscription - Vol 5, page 252, Ins no: 633

    The Malay off-springs of the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 who invaded Kadarem

    The grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 (named Raja Shulan in Malay Chronicles) who married 'Putri Gangga' the daughter of the king of Kadaaram the Lingi Johan (also known as Ganggi Juana) had three sons Bichitram, Palidutani and Nilumanam. Around A.D.1050 Rajendra Chola - 1's grandson appointed his own son Palidutani as viceroy king at Sri Vijaya, the son Nilumanam to the country Chandukani (also known as Chandragiri a region in Andhra pradesh)

    The grandson of Rajendra Chola -1 who married 'Onang Kiu' daughter of the king Chulin, had a daughter by her named 'Putiri Chendani Wasis'. She was given in marriage to king Suran and had three sons by him. Around this same period around A.D.1050 the eldest being Jiran was given the region Chandragiri Nagara (Thiruppathi region - former Thondai Mandalam of medieval period Tamil Nadu) of north Chola country to rule as a viceroy. His second son king Chulan was adopted by the grandfather on his mother's side. The third son king Pandayan was given the Nagapattinam region to be ruled as a viceroy.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    Airlangga divides his kingdom among his two sons

    With Airlangga becoming the king of the entire island of Java, Sri Samarawijaya Dharmasuparnnawahana Tguh Uttungadeva(A.D.1042-1068) the son of Airlangga by his first queen - the princess from Sri Vijaya, was made the next 'mahamantri' of the Javan kingdom. However there had been some dissention over same with his second (step) son Sri Maharaja Mapanji Garasakan - son of Airlangga by his second queen - the princess from Bali island.

    This lead king Airlangga to divide his Javan kingdom into two in the year A.D.1042 with the western half being the kingdom of Panjalu (subsequently known as the kingdom of Kediri) given to his elder son Samarawijaya Tguh Uttungadeva and the eastern half being Janggala to his younger son Garasakan, and chose to abidicate his throne in preference to a hermit life. He after seven years of his life as a hermit died in the year A.D.1049

    Chola trade with Java

    However there had been good relations between Java and Chola empire during the rule of Airlanga. Tamil traders flocked to the Javan ports which were located in the vicinity of the present Surabaya and Tuban, and they were rom the Chola country, Paandiya country and the Dravida which was the Thondai mandalam, all being regions of Tamil districts under Chola empire.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    (5) The period of Rajendra Chola - 2 (A.D.1051-1063)

    In the year A.D.1051 Rajadhiraja Chola - 1 died in a battle field in the Indian mainland while on war with westen Chalukiyas in the Indian mainland, where his younger brother Rajendra Chola - 2 (A.D.1051-1063) immediately proclaimed himself as the successor to the Chola throne ans lead the war to a victory.

    Honorary appointment for Chola Prince who captured Kadaarem

    During his rule he appointed his son who conquered Kadarem earlier and was given the title as Kadaremkonda Cholan during the rule of his father the Rajendra Chola - 1, as the viceroy of Mithilanagar a part of present Bihar in North India with the title Chola Janakarajan.

    During this same period Rajendra Chola - 2 appointed his grandson Palidutani son named Demang Lebar Dawn (earlier known as.....) the next successor to the throne at Sri Vijaya under Chola suzerainty.

    Airlanga's son plans to capture the lost territories of Sri Vijaya

    Airlanga with his final nine years of his lifetime spent as hermit demised in A.D.1048. After his death his ambitious eldest son Samarawijaya Tguh Uttungadeva who ruled West Java from Panjulu alias Daha (the present Kediri) planned to conquer the former territories of the Sri Vijaya empire. He had a legitimate claim over Sri Vijaya through his maternal grandfather Sangirama Vijayotungavarman who was the previous king of the empire

    His strategy of capturing the lost territories of the former Sri Vijaya went on unhampered, as during this period Rajendra Chola - 2 diverted most of their attention on internal wars in the Indian mainland and in Sri Lanka to prevent the Chola empire from disintegrating

    (6) The period of Virarajendra Chola (A.D.1063-1070)

    In the year A.D.1063 emperor Rajendra Chola - 2 demised, and his younger brother Virarajendra Chola (A.D.1063-1070) ascended the throne as the next successor to the Chola empire.

    Ambitious expedition of the son of Airlangga

    Taking the death of emperor Rajendra Chola - 2 in Chola country, the king of Kediri kingdom in Java the Samarawijaya Tguh Uttungadeva sent an expedition A.D.1064 to Sri Vijaya which was captured, and the other Sumatran kingdoms too submitted to the new Javan conquerer. He further penetrated into peninsular Malaysia where some kingdoms fell and Kadaram too was captured and it's king escaped to Chola country.

    Chinese recognise Cholas as vassels of Sri Vijaya

    The successful expedition of the Airlanga's son and his claim to the Sri Vijaya throne could have possibly made him to declare himself as the emperor of Sri Vijaya, but with his seat of reign still at Panjalu (Kediri) in Java. This probably made the Chinese to recognise the Cholas as vassels of the Sri Vijaya thereafter.

    King of Kadarem seeks military aid from the Chola country

    With the capture of the kingdom of Kadarem by the son of Airlanga of Java, it's king a Chola viceroy escaped to Chola country and requested the emperor Virarajendra to provide military assistance in his efforts to regain his kingdom.

    Prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) leads the second naval expedition to South-East Asia

    Emperor Virarajendra Chola also known as Buwanaasirayan (Buwanawati) after bringing the homefront in the Indian mainland under complete control, with a view of re-stablishing the lost Chola authority over Sri Vijaya empire and also assisting the king of Kadaarem to gain back his throne, sent a naval expedition in the year A.D.1067 to South-East Asia under the command of his nephew prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) of the Vengi kingdom (encompassed between the Godavari and Krishna rivers - in the present Orrisa state).

    Prince Rajendra who also bore the title "Jeyadhara" was the son of Virarajendra Chola's sister Ammangai (married to Rajaraja Narendra the ruling king of the Vengi country alias Manchapattinam the present Masulipattinam of Andhra pradesh in the Indian mainland. He was accompanied by the princes and viceroys ruling Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Thondaimandalam the present Golkonda, Vangaladesam the present Bengal and Kutcharem the present Gujerat.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".......In Keling (India) dwelt a mighty prince Anyakra Buanawati (Buwanasiraya i.e. Virarajendra) decendent of Pandu (should be Chola)......A great Keling fleet under Jayalengkara (Jeyadhara i.e. Kulotunga Chola - 1) prince of Manchapadnam (Masulipattinam region of Vengi capital), sets out and calls at Paula Percha (another name for Sumatra) where the princes of Acheh (Ilamuridesam), Deli, Batu Bara, Rokan, Siak, Bengkulu, Indragiri, Jambi (Malaiyur) and Palembang (Sri Vijaya) submit and surrender princesses. Pajajaran submits, The rulers of Keling with the rulers of Golkonda, Nagapadanam, Thanjaur, Gujerat and Bengal all came flying through the air, the Tamil ruler and his family in a hill like golden palace (maaligai panchapura). The adipathi of Banyu Mas informs Kuripan that the Tamil king has reached. Pajajaran (in Java) and his golden palace has become a town Martapura complete with moats and castles. After an exchange of envoys and letters the war starts. Inu sends Prabu Mataram and Adipathi Kumaittir to Jagaraga......."

    Hikayat Chekel-Waneng-Pati - Raffles MS 23, Library of the Royal Asiatic Library, London. (A Malay Historical Chronicle of the (Hindu) period of 12th century A.D)
    A History of Classical Malay Literature - Sir Richard Winstedt (see Appendix).

    This reference was first mentioned by Sir Richard Winstedt in his book titled "A History of Classical Malay Literature". I co-related this information with Kulotunga Chola - 1's war expedition to Kadarem and Sri Vijaya on behalf of Emperor Virarajendra, and 'highlighted same for the first time to all History Scholars' present at the Session presided by Dr Noburu Karashima at the 6th International Tamil Conference/Seminar held in Malaysia in the year 1987.

    There is a further reference in the Tamil Historical chronicle the "Kulothungan Pillaith Thamil" of this period, confirming Prince Rajendra's war expedition to Kadarem as follows.

    "......Madimaiyaal varithu iraathu, Angam, vangam, Kalingham, Kuligham Thirikaththam,Maaluvam, Sonakam, Pappalam, Koppalam Magadham, endru evaiyum maravam kadiyum monangalaam arasu ver ara erinthu, Arumanam, Saavakam, Vangaalam, Elam, Kadaarem, Thava Cheenam entru "yaavaiyum kaipaduththi, kudimai aal Arasare aahavittu", avar sikara makudakodikalil vaikkum kodikale vada thisai Gangaiyai then thisai kondu ela pandu kondu angu adimai aalum piran mahan mahan........".

    Kulothunga Cholan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, verse 77


    The Tamil poetic work "Kulothunga Cholan Pillai Thamil" of the 12th century by Poet Ottakkooththar is a praise poem on Kulothunga Chola - 2. The above reference in same on the war achievements of "a Chola king" is mentioned in detail, and at the end it specifically states that Kulothunga Chola - 2 was the grandson of 'this great Chola king' on whom they have been attributed. But we are well aware from all epigraphical and historical sources on the chronology of the later Chola kings that this great king was no other than Kulothunga Chola - 1 whose grandson was the Kulothunga Chola - 2.

    Hence it is very clear that it was Kulothunga Chola - 1 who captured the South-East Asian countries namely Arumanam (Miyanmar), Saavakam (the island Java), Kadaarem the Kedah of Malaysia), Thavaa Cheenam (Taoist China the present Kouang Chow of southernmost region of mainland China), which according to the same reference "were handed back to the respective rulers', undoubtedly on their acceptance of Chola suzerainty and agreeing to pay tributes.

    The above evidence too was for the first time highlighted by me to the Chola Historical community at this same Tamil Conference/Seminar held in the year 1987.

    All kingdoms in Sumatra subdue to the Cholas

    The Chola forces first landed in the island of Sumatra. The kings and viceroys of Ilamuridesam, Pannai, Sri Vijaya and other small kingdoms centering around the river Siak, Rokan, and Indragiri in central Sumatra and Benkulu in the south submitted themselves preventing war and accepted the Chola suzerainty in preferance to the Javan supremacy.

    However the king of Malaiyur in Sumatra refused to accept the Chola supremacy initially and was defeated and his kingdom captured, but was handed back to him on his recognition of the Chola overlordship over Malaiyur.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Arukkan uthayaththu thaasaiyil irrukkum kamalam anaiya nilamakal thanai munneer kuliththa annaal, Thirumaal aathik kelal aaki eduththanna yaathum saliyaa vakai inithu eduththa than kudai nilat keel inpura iruththi thikiriyum puliyum thisai thorum nadaaththi(ya) Ko Rajakesari vanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Cholathevarkku aandu 2 aavathu......"

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola (Kulothunga Chola - 1)
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol

    Chola forces captures West Java

    The Chola forces now crossed seas and proceeded to the island Java for the first time. An initial attempt for peaceful negotiations by the prince Rajendra with Airlanga's son to regain Kadarem failed. This caused the forces to move towards Pajajaran the capital of the Hindu - Sunda kingdom in West Java having the Pamali river (present Brebas river) as it's eastern border and now under the suzerainty of Javan empire. This kingdom submitted to the Chola forces. The (Sena-)athipathi named Banyu Mas informed the king at Kuripan

    Chola forces under prince Rajendra brought this kingdom under Chola rule.

    However subsequently these territories were handed back to him on his acceptance of the Chola authority over West Java.

    Chola forces re-captures Kadarem

    Prince Rajendra now proceeded with his forces to Kadaarem in the peninsular Malaysia defeated the ruling viceroy of Airlanga's son and took control of the kingdom of Kadaarem, and assumed the title "Kulothunga Chola Kidaaratharaiyan (Kadaaratharaiyan). He subsequently gave the reign of Kadarem to king Suran the earlier ruler of Kadarem who seeked the assistance of the Chola king Virarajendra.

    Suran was married to Chendaniwasi (Chedani Wasis) the daughter of the Chola prince who lead the first Kadarem expedition and the princess Onangki (Onang Kiu) - the daughter of Chulin the earlier king of Kadaarem defeated by this Chola prince.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......(Kulothunga Cholan) parakkum oathak Kadaaram aliththa naal paayintha sempunal aadiyum neenthiyum......"

    Kalingaththupparani - by Jeyamkondaar, chapter six titled 'Peikalai paadiyathu'

    Prince Rajendra Chola visits the Cambodia king Harshavarman - 3 (A.D.1066-1080)

    The good relations the Cholas had with kings of Cambodia from the time of Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1012-1044) continued, and with the presence of Prince Rajendra Chola - 1 in South-East Asia on his second Chola war expedition in A.D.1067 and after his re-capture of Kadarem, possibly induced him to visit the court of the Khamer Empire of Cambodia (present Kampuchea) just across the seas from Kadarem around to further strengthen the Chola-Khamer relationship under the Khamer Emperor Harshavarman - 3 (A.D.1066-1080).

    It was during this visit as a mark in memory of the meeting of the Cambodian king Harshavarman - 3 with Prince Rajendra Chola in person, the former gifted a stone (possibly carved and ornamented) to Prince Rajendra Chola to be taken to Chola country. On his return this stone was placed as exhibition monument on the front Mandapam wall in front of the Sanctum Sanctorium of the Chithamparam Nadarajar Temple in the Chola country in Tamil Nadu on the instructions of Prince Rajendra Chola - 1 (later Kulothunga Chola - 1).

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Sri Rajendra Chola thevarkku Kamboja Rajan kaatchiyaaka kaatina kallu. Ithu Udaiyar Rajendra Chla thevar thiruvaai molintharula Udaiyar Thiruchittrambala Udayar Koyilil mun vaiththathu. Intha kallu Thiruethirambalaththu Thirukkalcharaththil thirumun paththikku melai paththiyile vaiththathu....."

    Epigraphia Indica - Vol 5, inscription No 13 C

    Prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) rules from Sri Vijaya

    After the South-East Asian expedition prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) returned to Sri Vijaya and procliamed himself as the Ruler of Sri Vijaya with his new royal title Kulothunga Chola Thevar falling in line with the royal titles of the previous Emperors of Sri Vijaya namely Mara Vijayothunga, Sangirama Vijayothunga etc and became the emperor of Sri Vijaya from A.D.1068. This made the Chinese of this period refer to Kulothunga as one ruling both the Chola empire and Sri Vijaya empire. During this period he established more control over territories of Chola interest and regulated their trade in this region.

    Kulothunga Chola Thevar after his proclamation as the Ruler of Sri Vijaya, with his victory over Kadaarem (the Kedah region) of present Malaysia and it's re-annexation to the great Chola empire assumed himself also as "Kulothunga Chola Kidaaratharaiyan" meaning the 'Kulothunga Chola the king of Kidaarem' (Kadaarem).

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    The fifth Chola trade delegation to China from Sri Vijaya

    He remained at Sri Vijaya for some time until condiions at Sri Vijaya settled. It was during this period Kulothunga Deva (Ti Hua Ka Lo) in the year A.D.1067 paid a visit to the Chinese court with tributes and he was given the title by the Chinese Emperor Ying Sung as "Great General who supports Obedience and cherishes Renovation".

    The Emperor provided with an imperal edict which read as follows: "Our reputation and Our teachings overshadow all countries whether far or near and if their people are only loyal and dutiful, we always give them Chinese titles favouring them with fine names in order to distinguish their countries. You have gladly obeyed our high influence and come across the sea to bring valuable articles as tribute. We praise you for this and have raised your rank in order to give an encouragement to loyalty and dutifulness"

    Kulothunga Chola Deva reconstructs Tao temple in China

    On his return through the Kwang Chou port (Canton) he heard of a great Tao temple which was destroyed and burnt in A.D.1052 by a Chinese Bandit chief named Lang of Kwang Yuen and it remained in ruins with no one to reinstate. The Sri Vijaya king Kulothunga Deva on his return from the Chinese court to Sri Vijaya sent his envoy named Chih Lo Lo to escort his ships to the seaport city Kwang Chou to investigate in to the position of this temple. He saw this Tao temple ruins and returned back and reported to king Kulothunga Deva.

    In the same year A.D.1067 (in the fourth reign year 'chih ping' o Emperor Ying Sung) prince Rajendra Chola sent Chola Sha-Wen to Kwang Chou port to meet the Prefectural Authority of Kwang Chou seaport city and begin the construction of the main Gate of the temple. In the year A.D.1068 (first reign year 'nsi ning' of Emperor Shen Sung)

    He probably with a view of further strengthening the already existing good trade and diplomatic relations ordered the reconstruction of the main gate, hall, and an auditorium to house the imperial edicts made to this temple.

    Kulothunga Chola Deva after a brief period of rule at Sri Vijaya as its overlord returned to the Chola country, after appointing a viceroy to rule this kingdom namely Debar Lemang Duan having the Chola royal blood, cGreat grand son of Rajendra Chola - 2's son.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "........In the 4th year of Hung Yiu (A.D.1052) the bandit Lang of Kwang Yuen sailed down the river unexpectedly and came stealthily to the border of the central wall of Fan Yu city. Calamity befell the temple and it was reduced to ashes. Who could be the one to reinstate the ruins that lay before one's eyes. Had one not been a man of wealth, a devotee of Tao and a sincere seeker of happiness would one ever be willing to pay attention to this ? The city of Five Goats (Canton) is situated near the great sea. It connects with various foreign lands. It is a rendezvous ehere the flying merchantmen meet.

    During the reign of Chih Ping (A.D.1064-1067), the lord of the land San-fo-Tsi the paramount chief Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) ordered one of his clansmen Chih Lo Lo to escort his ships to this city. Chih lo Lo saw the temple in ruins its foundation being buried in wilderness. He then returned home and reported the matter to the Lord. Since then Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) began to have an inclination for Tac. In the 4th year (of Chih Ping 1067) he despatched Si Li Sha Wen to Canton to call at the prefectural authority, and began to undertake the construction of the Main Gate (of the temple).

    in the 1st year of Nsi Ning (A.D.1068) Sha Wen went home before the construction of the Hall was completed. He came back in the 2nd year to complete his work. He also built the Auditorium of the Imperial Edict to the west of the Prefecture (Canton).

    Sha Wen again left for his home land, and in the 3rd year (A.D.1070) the Lord of the Land (of San-fo-tsi = Sri Vijaya)) again sent his clansman, who brought various articles with him to solicit Lo Yin Chih a priest from Lu San to be the Residential Administrator of the temple and Ho Teck Sun the Supervisor. In the same year he asked for permission to purchase a rice-field at 100,000 gold cash, the proceeds of which were to cover the expenses of the temple

    .......Splendid honours showered upon those concerned. The title of Great General Who Supports Obedience and Cherishes Renovation was given to the Lord of the Land (of San Fo Tsi = Sri Vijaya)......

    The ships of the Lord of the Land (of San-fo-Tsi = Sri Vijaya) ever since the constrction of the temple sailed to their destination witout the fear of danger which they suffered in previous days. This was enough to prove the blessings of the Real Supernatural Powers a reward from the Supreme Purity.

    Being an eye-witness of this miracle I bowed to the request of the Great Master Tsong Tao to record this in the 2nd year of Yuan Fong (A.D.1079) on the day of double-nine

    The Meritorious Donor : Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) the Great General Who Supports Obedience and Cherishes Renovation. This stone was erected by the Chief Priest Ho Tek Sun the Great Master......."

    Sri Vijaya Inscription in a ruined Taoist Monastery (at Kuang Cho North Road) in Canton - by Tan Yeok Seong,
    Journal of the South-East Asian History (Singapore) September - 1964

    "In the reign of Chih Ping, Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) sent an envoy Chih Lo Lo by name to pay tribute to the Court. The ship was caught in a storm and almost capsized. Chih Lo lo prayed to Heaven (for mercy). Thereupon an old man appeared in the cloud and the storm was subdued. At that time the city of Canton was destroyed by lang the bandit. The portrait of Lao Chun was laid in the dust. Chih Lo Lo came across it and found that it was the picture of the old man whom he saw previously.

    When he returned home he reported the matter to Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) who at once sent Si li Sha Wen to go to Canton to buy building materials and to recruit workers to reconstruct (the temple). When it was completed Lo Yin Chih a Taoist priest was asked to be the Resident Administrator and Ho Tek Sun the Supervisor. An endowment fund fund of 100,000 cash was donated to purchase a piece of farmland located at Min Tang in the district of Fan Yu. The next year Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) died. His nail and hair were scissored and sent to the priest who buried them at Min Tang. Sacrifice is offered even even today"

    Found in the Chinese Chronicle titled "Older History of Kuang Chou"
    Re-quoted in :Tien Hsia Chun Kuo Li Pin Shu - by Ku Yen Wu
    Sri Vijaya Inscription in a ruined Taoist Monastery (at Kuang Cho North Road) in Canton - by Tan Yeok Seong,
    Journal of the South-East Asian History (Singapore) September - 1964

    (7) The period of Kulothunga Chola - 1 (A.D.1070-1120)

    In the year A.D.1070 with the death of Virarajendra a rebellion sparked off in the Chola country in which his son Athirajendra Chola the next legitimate successor to the Chola throne was assasinated and a state of anarchy prevailed in the kingdom.

    His untimely death with no heir apparent to succeed paved way for Kulothunga as the next successor to the throne in A.D.1070 with the royal title 'Kulothunga Chola - 1' (A.D.1070-1120).

    Kulothunga Chola - 1 receives tributes from Malaysia and Indonesia

    During the early part of his rule West Java, Sumatra and Malaysian territories including Kadarem which subdued and accepted the Chola sovereignty during the period of Virarajendra continued to send tributes to Chola country.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".......vaar kadat thivaanthara poopaalar thirai vidu kalam sori kaliru murai nitpa ......ko vi Rajakesarivanmaraana Thiripuvana chakravarthikal Sri Kulothunga Cholathevarkku aandu naatpaththainthaavathu......."

    Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol

    Kulothunga Chola -1 confirms grants to Buddhist Temples in Tamil Nadu

    The good relations between the Chola country and Kadarem were again normalised during the rule of Kulothunga Chola - 1. The king of Kadarem through his envoys Rajavidyadara Sri Samandan and Abimanetunga Sri Samandan requested him to reconfirm on copper plates the earlier grants made to the Buddhists temples Rajendra Chola perumpalli and Rajaraja perumpalli (alias Sailendra Chulamanipanma vihare), built by his predecessors at Nagapattinam in Shythiriya Sihamani valanaadu in the Chola country.

    This request was granted by Kulothunga Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1090 and the officers Rajavallaba Santhuvikrikan Pallavaraiyar and Rajendrasingha Muventhavelaan arranged confirmation of same on copper plates.

    Towards this period the seaport city of Nagapattinam was renamed as Cholakulavalli pattinam after one of Kulothunga's consorts and Shythiriya Sihamani valanadu as Keyamaanikka valanadu.

    Kulothunga Chola - 1 declares Nagapattinam a Duty Free Port

    The trading activities of the Chola country with South-East Asia and China increased immensely, which made the emperor Kulothunga Chola - 1 to remove 'custom duties' imposed on goods of trade and make Nagapattinam a free port. This gave rise to his new title as "Sungam Thavirththa Cholan" meaning the 'Chola who waived the custom duties'.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Sri Kulothunga Chola Thevar who abolished the custom duties and removed the darkness and ruled the world....'

    Inscription No 408, Annual Report on Epigraphy - year 1912

    (8) The period of Vikkrama Chola (A.D.1070-1120)

    (9) The period of Kulothunga Chola - 2 (A.D.1070-1120)

    Tributes from Kadarem and Taoist China continue to come to Chola Country

    During the period Kulothunga Chola - 2 too tributes continued to comeforth from the kingdoms the Kadarem of Malaysia and Taoist China.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....nirai porul selvamodu avani vaal......Kadaarer.....Cheenar entru arai kalal Ventharum pal aanai soola muramaiyil urintha thirai konarnthu irainjavum.....Veera simaashanaththu Bhuvanamuluthudaiyaalodum veertiruntharuliya Kovi Rasakesaripanmaraana Thiribhuvanach chakkravarthikal Sri Kulothungathevarkku aandu...."

    The Meikeethi - 1 of Kulothunga Chola - 2

    "....oru kudai nilavum porupadai thikiri veyilinum karungkali irulinai thurappa needu pal uuli earl kadal puraththilum kodaa senth thani kolinil thulaava....."

    The Meikeethi - 2 of Kulothunga Chola - 2

    (10) The period of Rajaraja Chola - 2 (A.D.1070-1120)

    Last edited by virarajendra; 30th June 2016 at 05:54 PM.

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