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Thread: The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia & Thailand - P2

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    Author: Virarajendra

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    The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand & Cambodia - Part 2

    Donations to the Nagapattinam Hindu temple by king of Kadarem

    In the year A.D.1019 an Agent of the viceroy King of Kadarem named Sri Kuruththann Kesavan alias Agralekai presened 87.5 kalanju of Chinese gold and 60.75 local gold for jewels to the deity of Thirukaronam Udaiyar temple at Nagapattinam, for worship and food offerings to God Arthanarihal (Arththanaatheeswarer) in stone Image consecrated by him, and for feeding of two Brahmin Priests of this temple.

    The above are confirmed by the following References

    "......Ko Parakesaripamarana Rajendra Chola thevarkku aandu (e)laavathu Kshythiriya valanaattu Pattinakkuutraththu Nagapattinaththu Thiruk Karona(u)daiya Mahaathevar koyilil Kidaraththaraiyar Kanmi Sri Kuruttan Kesuvanaana Agralekai elunththaruluviththa Arththanaarikalukku avipali archanaikku enru metpadiyaan varakkaattina Cinakkanakam enpaththelu kalanju mukkalum metpadiyaan ith Thevar koyilil utthahmakram irantukalam unna pokatthukku entru varakkaattina Cinakkanakam enpattelu kalanju mukkaalum metpatiyaan Thevakkum, Bramanarkkum....tayiru.....entru varakkaattina untikaippon (a)rupatin kalanju mukkaalum aaka ippon irunurru muppattaru kanlanju kalum Thiruk Karonamudaiyaarkku vendum tiruvaaparanam ullittana ceyakk kondu ith Thevar pantarattai...."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on the west & south walls at Karonaswami temple at Nagapattinam
    Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy - 1956/57, Inscription No 166, page 15.


    Emperor of Sri Vijaya constructs a further Buddhist temple at Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu

    During this period on a further request of the Emperor Mara Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya who was also the overlord of Kadaarem, another Buddhist temple was built at Nagapattinam in the close vicinity of the earlier Buddhist temple - the Sri Sailendra Chudamanipama Vihaaram, which was named after Rajendra Chola - 1 in honour of him, as "Rajendra Chola Perumpalli". This temple had among others two bronze images of lord Buddha one in the standing pose with the Tamil inscription on the lower rim of the pedestal as Cholaperumpalli Naayakar, and the other in the seated pose with a Tamil inscription bearing the name Cholaperumpalli Aalvar.

    This Buddhist temple had another big subshrine for lord Buddha in named as Akkasalai Perumpalli built within the same complex by the traders of Tamil Nadu of the trading guild "Thisai Ayiraththu Iym Nootruvar of Pathinen Poomi (trading in eighteen lands)" for their worship and welfare. To this sub-shrine a local chief by the name Naalaang Kunaakara Udaiyaar consecrated a bronze image of Buddha image by the name "Akkasaalai Perumpalli Aalvaar" to be taken around in procession during the days of the utsavam ceremony at this temple.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Kidaaratharaiyan Keyamaanikka valanaattu pattanak kuutraththu Cholakulavalli pattinaththu eduppiththa Rajendra Chola Perumpallikkum, Rajaraja Perumpallikkum pallisanthamaana uurkal......"

    Small Leidan Copper Plates of Kulothuga Chola - 1, Bauthamum Thamilum by Mayilai S.Venkatasamy (Appendix)
    Epigraphia Indica - Vol XXII, Page 267-281


    "......'Chola Perumpalli Naayakar' - 'The Nayakar (Lord Buddha) of (or dedicated to) the Chola Perumpalli'. Obviously this votive image was meant for the Chola Perumpalli which was a celebrated Buddhist Vihare erected in Nagapattinam by the Sailendra ruler of Sri Vijaya (in Sumatra) and named after the reigning Chola king Kulothunga - 1.

    ".......'Chola Perumpalli Alvaar' - 'The God (Lord Buddha) of the Chola Perumpalli'. Evidently the purpose of this inscription is to announce that the votive image of the Buddha belonged to the buddhist monastry built by the Sailendra and endowed by Rajendra Chola - 1

    The Nagapattinam and other Buddhist Bronzes in the Madras Museum - by T.N. Ramachandran, Joint Director-General of Archaeology, India, Page 124 & 92
    Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, Vol VII, No. 1 - 1954


    ".......Rajendra Chola Perumpalli Akkasaalaip Perumpalli Alvaar koyilukku thiru utsavam eluntarula Alvaar ivvalvarai eluntaruluvittaar Chirutaavur Nalankunaakara Udaiyaar, Swasti Sri Pathinen Vishayattukkum Akkasaalaikal Naayakar....."

    An Inscription on the pedestal of the bronze Buddha image of Mr & Mrs D.Rockefeller - 3rd collection,
    International character of Nagapattinam Merchants during the Chola period.
    Journal of East-West Maritime Relations - by Prof N.Karashima & Dr.Y.Subbarayalu, Vol 3 - 1994


    Discussions

    In the first reference above, my view is that the 'Chola Perumpalli Nayakar' was not named after Kulothunga Chola - 1, but after Rajendra Chola - 1 in view of the fact the Smaller Leidan Plates which was issued by Kulothunga Chola - 1 and which mentions about Rajendra Chola Perumpalli doesnot give any hint that it was built by him. Further it doesnot refer to it as 'Kulothunga Chola Perumpalli' but only as "Rajendra Chola Perumpalli". In this instance we should remember that Kulothunga Chola had the name as Rajendra Chola only when he was a heir-apparent of Chola country and the ruler of Chalukya Vengi country.

    Emperor Sangirama Vijayothungavarman ascends the Sri Vijaya throne (A.D.1015 -1024)

    The Emperor Maara Vijayothungavarman of Sri Vijaya empire demised in A.D.1015 and was succeeded by his son Sangirama Vijayothungavrman (A.D.1015-1024). The good trade and diplomatic relations between the Chola empire and the Sri Vijaya empire existed upto the end of Maara Vijayothungavarman's rule.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:


    Marriage of Airlangga with the Sri Vijayan Princess

    In the year A.D.1021 Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya in Sumatra gave her daughter Sangirama Vijaya Dharma-Prasadotungadevi in marriage to king Airlanga of East Java. From the year of their marriage in A.D.1021 onwards, she was made the "Mahamanthiri" (the chief minister) of the kingdom of East Java by king Airlangga, and was second only to the king Airlangga in controlling power and authority in the kingdom.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".......Swasti Saka warsatita 943 (943 + 78= A.D.1021) karthikamasa......Sri Maharaja rake halu Sri Lokeswara Dharmmawangsa Airlanggananta Vikramotunggadeva tinadah rakryyan mahamantri i hino Sri Sangraama Vijaya Dharmaprasadotunggadevi......'

    Inscription of Airlangga from Cane in East- Java
    Oud-Javaansche Ookonden - Nagelaten Transscripties, van wijlen Dr. J.L,Brandes, Uitgegeven door Dr. N.J.Krom - page 120.


    "........Swasti Saka warsatita 959 (959 + 78 = A.D.1037) marggasiramasa......Sri Maharaja rake halu Sri Lokeswara Dharmawangsa Airlanggananta Vikramotunggadeva inadah rakryan mahamantri i hino Sri Sangiraama Vijaya Dharmaprasadotunggadevi......"

    Inscription of Airlangga from Kamalaggan in East- Java
    Oud-Javaansche Ookonden - Nagelaten Transscripties, van wijlen Dr. J.L.Brandes, Uitgegeven door Dr. N.J.Krom - page 120.


    Discussion:

    Many Indonesian Scholars opt to go for te Reading version - 2 of the Pucangan Inscription (also known as Calcutta Stone Inscription) as it has been a re-study of this inscription by Dr J.L.Brandes & Dr N.J Krom, and from same we note Airlangga became a king of East Java in the year A.D.1019.

    It is very clear in the year A.D.1021 if we go by Reading version - 1 of Pukangan Inscription at an age of 31 years Airlangga wouldnot had a daughter old enough to occupy the post of Rakryaan ma ha mantri i Hino (that is as a person who had the controlling power in the kingdom only next to the King), and if we go by Reading version - 2 at an age of 21 years to Airlangga this theory totally fails. So it is very clear that Sri Sangiraama Vijaya Dharmaprasadotunggadevi was not the daughter of Airlangga as held by some Scholars, but his Queen who was given the supreme powers by the king only next to him.

    Thus Airlangga married the daughter of Sangrama Vijayotungavarman and made her as his first royal consort. The name of the Sri Vijaya emperor the Sangiraama Vijayotungavarman the successor to Mara Vijayotungavarman does not appear in any historical Documents or Inscriptions of Indonesia, but only in the Chola Meikeerththi (True Glory) of the Rajendra Chola - 1 that too at the contemporary period when the name Sri Sangiraama Vijaya Dharmaprasadotunggadevi appears for the first time in the Airlangga's Inscriptions from A.D.1021

    The strain in the Chola - Sri Vijaya relationship

    At Sri Vijaya Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman unlike during the period of his predecessors the good hostilities that existed between these two empires broke. This probably occured due to him not withstanding to see the flourishing Chola trade in the South-East Asian region and with China, as against the trade of Sri Vijaya empire in these regions. He imposed some drastic trade laws and heavy taxes detrimental to the already flourishing Chola trade especially in the in the kingdom of Kadarem among the Indian colony of traders in the Bujang valley region which was under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire.

    The above course of action would have been instituted by the Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya through his viceroy at Kadarem namely the king Linggi Johan, which would have caused much damages to the flourishing Chola trade at Kadarem and caused much anger to the already aggressive and imperialistic Cholas.

    The great Chola war expedition to South - East Asia

    The imense strain in the Chola - Sri Vijaya relationship caused Rajendra Chola - 1 to send a large naval expedition excessively powerfull in arms with a large fleet of ships to South - East Asia in the year A.D.1022 lead by his grandson (i.e. his son Rajendra Chola - 2's son)

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai
    vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu,
    avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum - nirai Sri Vijayamum,
    thuraineer Pannaiyum, nanmalai uur eyil thon Malaiyurum,
    aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum, kalangaa valvinai Ilangaasokamum,
    kaappuru nirai punal Maa-Pappaalamum, kaavalam purisai Mevili-Bangkamum,
    vilaip panthurudai Valaipanthurum, kalaamuthi kadunthiral Ilaamurithesamum,
    kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum, theethamar valvinai Maa-Thamaalingamum,
    thenakkalar polil Maa-Nakkavaaramum, thodukadal kaaval kadumuran Kadaaramum,
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The capture of the Nicobar islands by Chola forces

    The mighty Chola forces crossed seas and reached Nakkavarem the present Nicobar island which was captured and brought under their rule. It appears this island was made the centre of their operations for their capture of Kadarem and Sri Vijaya.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thenakkalar polil Maa-Nakkavaaramum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    http://www.my-india-travelguide.com/...ar-islands.htm

    It further appears the Chola naval fleet was divided into three units from here, and one expedition headed towards Kadarem under the command of the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 (son of Rajendra Chola - 2). The second expedition headed direct to the kingdom of Sri Vijaya in the south-east direction around Sumatra of Indonesia under the Chola General Chola Brammaraayer, and the third expedition direct to Talaitakkolam under another Chola General direct to South Thailand

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Sri Vijaya in Sumatra

    The valiant Chola fleet reached the kingdom of Sri Vijaya also known as Sri Vijayapura in the island of Suvarnadvipa alias Suvarnapura - the island Sumatra, and defeated the (overlord) king of Kadarem (Kataka) - who was the Emperor of the mighty Sri Vijaya empire the Sangirama Vijayotungavarman (A.D.1020-1023) of the Sailendra dynasty. The Chola forces captured his fortress Malayagiri at his capital city the Vijayanagara.

    He was taken captive along with the elephants of his glorious army, large heaps of treasures and the Vidyaadhara Thoranam (arch) at the war-gate of his extensive capital city the Sri Vijaya (nagara) with the jewelled-wicket gate adorned with great splendour and the gate of large jewels. His extensive kingdom of Sri Vijaya which covered approximately the present South Sumatra, Lampung and Benkulu provinces of the island Sumatra came under the fold of the mighty Chola empire, and a Chola Prince was appointed as the viceroy of this kingdom. However the family members and daughter of Sangramavijayotungvarman went to West Java for safety. The forces now directed their attention on territories which were under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire.

    The above are confirmed by the following References

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu, avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum, nirai Sri Vijayamum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Mevilibangkam adjacent to South Sumatra

    The Chola forces next crossed over and captured Mevilibankam the present Banka island neighbouring the south-east coastel region of Sumatra opposite the Sri Vijaya kingdom. The ruling king of this region is not known. However the Mevilibankam too was under th sway of Sri Vijaya empire duing this period.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kaavalam purisai Mevili-Bangkamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko ParakesaripanmUdaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Malaiyuur in Sumatra

    The forces from here moved into Malaiyur (Melayuu) in the mainland of Sumatra, a mountainous region approximately comprising the present Jambi and Perkanbaru states of central Sumatra which too they captured and brought under their control. The city fortress of Malaiyur was located at the Jambi proper adjacent to the river Batanghari.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......nanmalai uur eyil thon Malaiyuurum,.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu......"

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    ".......Saavakam erinthu Arumanam poruthu sinthath thakarththu Malayuurin uruva purisai thalli
    Koaham nekilnthu kulayumpadi Kadaarem kollum oru Cholan marukaa !......'

    Kulothungan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, edited by T.S.Gangatharan, verse 92 Thanjavur Sarawathi Mahal Library publication


    Chola forces capture Pannai in Sumatra

    They continued with their naval expedition and captured Pannai (Pane). in the north of Sumatra. Here they set a garrison probably for the protetion of the interests of the numerous Chola traders in this region. The Chola army thereafter crossed seas.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thuraineer Pannaiyum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Ilamuidesam in Sumatra

    From here they proceeded to Ilamuridesam (Lemuri) approximatly covering the present Acheh province in the extreme north of the island Sumatra, conquered the territory and brought that too under their rule.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalaamuthi kadunthiral Ilaamurithesamum .......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The Chola army thereafter crossed seas and reached Kadarem to join the earlier division of their army lead by the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    Chola forces capture the great Kadaaram in north-west peninsular Malaysia

    The Cholas fleet lead by the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1, reached the kingdom of Kadaaram and landed at the estuary of Perak River and reached the Ganganagar (Kataka-nagara) it's capital city. They defeated the ruling king of Kadarem the Linga Yohan (Linggi Johan) the viceroy of the Emperor Sangiraama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya, who met his death in this war, captured and his city the Ganga Nagar. Later he appointed a Chola viceroy at Kadaaram to rule the kingdom which now became a part of the Chola empire. The grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 married Putri Gangga the daughter of the king of Kadaaram the Linga Yohan. This war appears not to have disturbed the Indian colony of traders in the Bujang valley region in th present Kedah province, but strengthened their position more in the kingdom of Kadarem.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thodukadal kaaval Kadaaramum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    ".......To him was born the son, the king named Mathuranthaha who was the punisher of the insubordinate and who.....with (the help) of his forces which crossed seas, which were excessively powerful in arms and which had scattered away the armies of all his enemies he burnt Kataha that could not be set on fire by others what is impossible for this Rajendra Chola!...."

    Inscription of Virarajendra Chola at Bahawathi Amman shrine at Agatheseswarem temple in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India
    Travancore Archeological Series vol 111, Part 1, No 41


    ".......Rajendra Chola ......having conquered Kataha with his valiant forces that had crossed the ocean, having made all kings bow down to this (king) protected the whole earth for a long time.....'

    Copper Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1 of Thiruvalankadu temple, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu, India.
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 111, Part 111, No.205


    "......by utterly defeating with no mercy the four fold army of Kataka and overpowering the powerful master of that place, Rajendra forcibly took possession of the enormous gold that had been amassed there......"

    Copper Plates of Rajendra Chola - 2 of Rajendra Cholaeswarem (Kailasanatha Temple) at Thiruvindalur, Mayiladuthurai, Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India
    Thiruvinthalur Cheppedukal - by Sankara Naaraayanan, Marksiya Ghandhi, A.Pathmawathi and Sivananthan. Published by T.Srithar Commissioner of Tamil Nadu Arasu Thol Iyal Thurai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India


    "......the king Mathuranthahan......crossed the ocean and attacked vehemently the Kadaarem......"

    Copper Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1 of Thiribhuwanamadevi Chathurvedimangalam in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
    Tamil Polil - Vol 33 (1957)


    ".......Hail Prosperity! In the twenty nineth year of king Parakesarivamar alias Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Choladevar who conquered Purvadesam, Gangai, and Kadarem......"

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 in the inner sanctum of Koneriswarer Temple at Agatheeswarem in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Kanyakumari Inscriptions - edited by Nadana Kasinathan, Part 1, No 1968/120


    ".......the same person obtained lands for the temple from the king's (Rajathiraja Chola's) father who was pleased to take the Purvadesam, Gangai and Kidarem...."

    Inscription of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 at Thiruvenkadu temple in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report in Epigraphy (Madra) b- 1918, No.450


    "......also gifts in year twenty seven of Periyadevar who conquered Purvadesam, Gangai, and Kadarem and in year thirty one of Rajathiraja....."

    Inscription if Rajathiraja Chola in Thiruvaiyar temple, Thanjavur district, Tamilnadu, India.
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol v, No 520


    "......ayyar who took Gangai, Purvadesam and Kadarem....."

    Inscription of Virarajendra in front of the central shrine of Thiruttalisvara temple at Thirupputur, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report on Epigraphy (Madras) - 1908, 110


    ".......gifted by Ulagudaiyal queen of (one) who took Gangai, Kidarem and Purvadesam....."

    Inscription of Rajendra chola - 1 on the central shrine in Ammanathaswami temple at Seramadevi in Tinnevely district, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report on Ephigraphy - 1916, No 623


    ".......the Sembiyan captured Kadaarem with cold clear wavy roaring sea and kept the country under his rule......"

    Kalingaththu Parani - by Jeyamkondaar, edited by Puliyuur Kesikan, chapter 8, page 104.

    ".......with mace captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem, and lived in Gangapuri the glorious (king)......."

    Vikkramacholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 34 to 36, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam Publication

    ".......the Sembiyar king who captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem and occupied the throne.....'

    Kulothungancholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 49 & 50, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......like the lion which attacked the elepant captured Kadaarem and Gangai and occupied the lion throne......"

    Sangara Rajendra Cholan Ulaa - edited by Ki. Vaa. Jeganaathan line 18 & 19, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......Saavakam erinthu Arumanam poruthu sinthath thakarththu Malayuurin uruva purisai thalli
    Koaham nekilnthu kulayumpadi Kadaarem kollum oru Cholan marukaa !......'

    Kulothungan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, edited by T.S.Gangatharan, verse 92 Thanjavur Sarawathi Mahal Library publication


    Chola forces capture Ilangasokam of south Thailand

    From Kadarem the forces moved in the eastern direction heading to Ilangasokam (Lankasuka) approximately encompassing the present Songkhla, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat states of present south Thailand. Chola forces captured Illangasokam and installed another prince as viceroy of this kingdom.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalangaa valvinai Ilangaasokamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Valaipanthur in north peninsular Malaysia

    From Ilangasokam the Chola forces further proceeded toward south-east direction to Valaipanthur (Valai Penjuru) in the present Kelantan state of Malaysia.


    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......vilaip panthurudai Valaipanthurum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Maayirudingam in south Malaysia

    Chola forces continued with their expedition and moved towards the south of peninsular Malaysia and captured Maayirudingham surrounded by deep sea. They destroyed the fortress named Klenggiu (Glang Gui) near the tributory Lenggui of the Johore river and defeated the ruling king Chulin of this region and gained much wealth from this kingdom. Rajendra Chola -1's grandson was offered the daughter Puteri Onangki (Onang Kiu) of the king Chulin of Maayirudingam whom he married. Subsequently this unit of forces returned to Kadarem by sea to join the other two units of the Chola forces.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Thalai-Thakkolam on the west of south Thailand

    The third unit of Chola forces reached Thalai-Thakkolam (Takua-pa) approximately covering the present Krabi, Phangnga and Surat Thani states of upper south ThaThe above are confirmed by the following References:

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Ma-Thamaling on the east of south Thailand

    Then they headed towards the east Ma-Thamaling (Tambaralinga) approximately covering the present Nakhon Sri Thamarat and Phatthalung states of south Thailand. The Chola fores moved back to Kadarem which was joined by the fleet that returned from the Sumatran expedition.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi....... theethamar valvinai Maa-Thamaalingamum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The Cambodian King Suriyavarman - 1 (A.D.1010-1050) requests for assistance from Chola Forces to win over his enemies

    After the Chola forces completed their war expedition to Indonesia, Malaysia and South Thailand the Cambodian king Suriyavarman - 1 who was at war seeked the assistance of the Chola forces to win over his enemy. This request was ceded by the Chola forces who sent a joint expedition with the Cambodian forces which ended in a great victory to the Cambodian King. He in recognition of the great assistance provided at war by the Chola's forces gave his War Chariot with which he won over his enemies as his present to Rajendra Chola - 1.

    With this good Chola-Khamer relationship the Saivite Priests, Traders and Stone Sculpturers from Chola country gradually settled in the region of Angkor the capital city of the Khamer emperer Suriyavarman - 1. During this period an old Siva Temple at 'Banteay Srei' 30 Km from the Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia was 'expanded and and new sections were added to an existing Siva temple' evidently by the Chola forces and re-dedicated to God Siva, with the new name "Thiribuvanamahadeva Temple" after Rajendra Chola's own mother's name the "Thiribhuvanamahadevi".

    In this temple in it's second enclosure, on the Gopura over main entrance we see an image of Nadarajah represented with eight hands but not in the same style as the Nadarajah images in the Tamil Nadu with left leg lifted and with four hands. In the lower panel beneath the Nadarajah image on its right side we see an image of a Drummer playing the drums to the beat of the Dance of God Siva depicted as Nadarajah, and on the left we see an image "visibly and positively confirmed" as that of the Kaaraikaal Ammaiyar of the Chola Country being one of the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu. This Panel undoubtedly was carved by a Tamil Sculpturer apparently from Chola country in Tamil Nadu.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....The Kamboja king aspiring for his (Rajendra's) friendship (and) in order to save his own fortunes sent him a triumphant Chariot, with which he had conquered the armies of the enemy kings in the battles......."
    Karandai Tamil Sangam Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1, Memoirs of the Archaeological Series of India, No 70 - translated version of the Sanskrit portion of the plates by K.G.Krishnan


    "......the Kamboja king who conquered his enemies with the help of Rajendra, gifted to him his War Chariot with which he won many battles......"
    Karandai Tamil Sangam Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1, Tamil Polil Magazine Vol.....,page 130 - tanslated version of the Sanskrit portion of the plates by Sadasiva Pandaaraththaar


    The Image of the Stone Panel at 'Banteay Srei' Siva Temple in Angkor, Cambodia, with the images of Nadarajah & Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyar can be reached and viewed on the following URL. (Enlarge this Image on your Computer to see the image of Kaaraikaal Ammaiyaar clearly with her ghostly Face and lean body with Ribs showing and holding a mango fruit in the right hand, an image of Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar comparable with the other images of her found in Tamil Nadu and in Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka.)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...lintelsrei.JPG

    http://tamilheritage.files.wordpress...found-2010.jpg

    The Chola forces capture Ma-Pappaalam their return to Chola country

    The joint forces on their return to Chola country captured the Ma-Pappalam of present Pegu region of Miyanmar (former Burma) where they planted their "Jeyathambam" and returned to Nagapattinam of Chola country.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kaappuru nirai punal Maa-Pappaalamum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Aftermath of the fall of Sri Vijaya empire

    With the fall of Sri Vijaya which was an important centre of Buddhist learning in South-East Asia under the great Buddhist teacher Acharya Dharmakirti (alias Dharmapala) probably underwent disturbed conditions which curtailed the activities of the centre.

    His great deciple Dipankara Attisa who came to Sri Vijaya in A.D.1012 from North India to learn Buddhism under him, after twelve years of learning left to India in the year A.D 1025 not withstandng the troubled conditions that befell the country. The fate of the Acharya Dharmakirti (alias Dharmapala) and the monastry was unknown.

    It appears certain conquered teritories have been handed back to native kings who accepted the suzeranty of the Cholas and agreed to pay tributes. Thus all countries which were under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire of South-East Asia came under the overlordship of the mighty Cola empire of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Sri Vijaya trade with China controlled by Cholas

    At Sri Vijaya the ruling Chola viceroy of Rajendra with a view of renewing the trade relations between China and Sri Vijaya sent an embassy to China in the year A.D.1028. This embassy was shown unusual honours by the Chinese emperor Jen Chung (A.D.1023-1064) in recognition of the mighty fame of Rajendra Chola - 1.

    Commemoration of Chola victory over Kaadarem and Sri Vijaya in Tamil Nadu

    To Cholas their conquer of Kadaarem was that which gave them the satisfaction of a great achievement inspite of their victory over many South-East Asian countries.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 after his astounding victory over Kadaarem (the Kedah region) of present Malaysia and it's annexation to his great Chola empire, assumed himself as "Rajendra Chola Kidaaratharaiyan" meaning the 'Rajendra Chola the king of Kidaarem' (Kadaarem).

    He further commemorating his great victory over Kadarem assumed the title as 'Kadaarem kondaan. A village known as Punjai near Mayilaaduthurai in Nagapattinam district, and another village near Thuraiyur in Thiruvarur district were named after this title as "Kadaarem kondaan".

    He to further commemorate this great event in the Chola history, also issued gold coins with his title 'Kadaarem kondaan' inscribed on them.

    The grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 who lead the Kadaarem expediion successfully on behalf of him - the son of Rajendra Chola - 2 named Rajadhiraja was given the title 'Rajadhiraja Kadaaremkonda Cholan' meaning the Rajadhiraja Chola who conquered Kadaarem or in short the 'Kadaaremkonda Cholan'.

    In a later period two Immediate Executive Officers (Udankoottam) of the king Rajendra Chola - 2 were given the above titles in recognition of their services to him as Arattai Soran Kulamaanikkam alias Rajadhiraja Kadaarankonda Cholan Velan and another as Vasavayan Machchi alias Kidarankonda Chola Velan.

    He to commemorate this victory renamed a village at Pasalinadu in Manayirkottam - the present Perambakkam region in south Thiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu as 'Kadaaremkonda Cholapuram'. It was in the village Narasinghapuram of this region the then Mathurantaka Nallur Aalvar temple the present Narasimha Perumal temple exits today.

    The region of Thondaimaanaartruur in Jeyamkondacholamandalam the present Kalahasti of Andhara Pradesh there had been another village named as Kadaaremkonda Cholapuram.

    There had been yet another region named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Cholapuram in the former Thaanava Nadu, a region which had been at the boundry of present Keeramangalam in the Pudukkoattai region of Tamil Nadu.

    There had been a village named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Chola Nallur which has been a boundry of the former region of Aakkur Nadu of Jayamkonda Cholavala Nadu the present Mayavaram region of the Thanjavur Mawattam of Tamil Nadu.

    Also there had been a highway named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Chola Perumtheru at Vikkramacholapuram in the close proximity to the present Vikkrama Choliswarer temple in the Udaiyaar Paalayam in the Perambalur Maawattam of the Thiruvalluur district in Tamil Nadu.

    Further there had been a settlement of Vedic Priests at Naangur Nadu named Kadaaremkonda Chola Chathurvedi Mangalam at Mayiladuthurai region of the Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 in recognition of the military services rendered by the Chola General Chola Brahmaraayer who lead one wing of the expedition to South-East Asia was decorated with the title Kadaaremkonda Chola Brahmaraayer after the war possibly in the year A.D.1025. Rajendra Chola - 1 towards the end of his rule in A.D.1044 before his death, to reward further his Senai Naayagam (Chief Military General) for his great military services provided during his period of rule gave him a new title as Rajendra Chola Brammaraayer, and gifted a kingdom within his own empire known as Thadigaivali (Thadikaipaadi) alias Vikkramachola mandalam the present Devanahalli and Hosakote regions in Karnataka State, as a life time endowment (Jivitham) to him. In the village Alur of this region a temple and a water tank was also built during this period.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 in recognition of the loyal service to him by one of his high officers named Muvenda Velaar belonging to his "udankoottam" (accompanying high Officers), gave a title with 'Kadaaremkonda Chola' prefixed to his own name as Kadaaremkonda Chola Muvenda Velaar

    There was a Chola Velaikkaara Chieftain by the name Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan (an Inscription at Ayyakulam at Naththam TamilNadu - Avanam 4, 1994, page 33

    Further to celebrate this victory a Siva temple was built at the village Karaivali Valliyur at Paduvurkottam the present Gudimallur of Walajapet in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, and was named as 'Kadaaremkonda Choliswaramudaiya Naayanar Koyil' the present Bhumisvara temple.

    Cholas further to mark their triumph over Sri Vijaya built another Siva temple at Merkunadu a subdivision of Rajadhiraja valanadu, and named it as 'Vijayamkonda Choliswarem Udaiyar Koyil'. This temple was at the northern boundry of Merkunadu during which time there also existed in the central region of Merkunadu a temple named as Vaanavanmathevi Vinnakar Aalvar which is the present Kadambavaneswara temple at Erumbur in Cuddalore district (Kadalur mavattam) of Tamil Nadu.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "Swasti Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan"

    One name among the many Velaikkarer names found on a Rockstone in a paddy field at Ayyaakulam near Nattham at (former Annaa Mawattam)
    "Avanam" Journal - Ithal 4 - January 1994


    Discussion:

    We note from the Inscriptions of the medieval Chola Kings that from time to time with their victory over certain kingdoms they assumed to themselves the titles expressing their authority over same. Initially we could see during Rajaraja cholans time as Chola Pandiyan, Chola Keralan etc. Subsequently we note they called themselves as (also) the kings of these kingdoms with their own names prefixed such as Rajendra Cholan Keralan, Kulothunga Chola Kadambarajan also as Kullotunga Chola Kadambaaraiyan. Likewise when Kulothunga Chola too won over Kadaarem assumed the title Kulothunga Chola Kidaarathuaraiyan. This is definitly the title assumed by the king on his own victory over Kadaarem and this title was conferred as honarary titles to the very close and faithfull servent-warriors (Vellaikaarer forces) of the king (who even dared to give their life to the king) to be attached to their own names. We could clearly see this clearly in the Inscription of Rajadhirajadevar - 2 (Inscriptions in Pudukkottai State - Part 1, Inscription No: 139) which states the name of the Vellaikarer who was named as Kulothunga Chola Kidaaraththu Araiyan aana Sadirasan Irasan.

    On this basis it could be clearly understood that the tituler name the "Swasti Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan" of Rajendra Chola -1 assumed after his victory over Kadaarem (Kedah of Malaysia) was also given to his faithfull Velaikkara Warrior in recognition of his services to Rajendra Chola - 1.

    ".......Vikrama Cholapuraththu Nagaraththoam vivaththai panninapadi engaloor Kidaaramkonda Chola perum theruvile munnaalil erandu kulang kalluviththu ikkulangal pothuvaaki......"

    Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 3 at Vikkiramamangalam Cholieswarer, Perambalur Mawattam, Udaiyaar Vattam.
    Aavanam Journal - by I. Thiyagarajan, Ithal 16, July 2005


    ".....Ithu Saalai Kidaaramkonda Cholan....."

    "......Ithu Saalai Kidaaramkonda....."

    "......Ithu Saalai Kidaarangkonda Cholan Paramaswamikal uchchiyam pothu Amuthu seitharuluvathatkku mun Utthamaakkramaaka Saalai Kidaaramkonda Cholanennum thirunaamaththaal Saalai....."

    "Purvadesamum Gangaiyum Kadaramum konda Ko Parakesaripanmarana Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Chola Devarkku yaandu 32 davathu, (Senai) nayagam Kadaremkonda Chola Brahmaraya sividattu (Jivitham - life interest)) Vikkrama Chola (Mandalaththu) Sannai naattu Alur....."

    Note: Alur was a village at the present Devanahalli region near present Airport of Karnataka State.

    Alur Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 by S.Swaminathan, Asst Sup, Epigraphist A.S.I Mysore.
    "Kalvettu" Quarterly Journal - No 55, January 2002


    "....Sayamgonda-Solan uyarnta perum-pugal Sri Kovi Rajakesaripanmar ana
    Udaiyar Sri Rajadiraja Devarkku yandu 33 davadu senapati Rajendra-Sola-Brahmarayar jivitamanan-
    Tadigaivaliyana Vikkirama-Sola-mandalattu Sannai nattu varah kollumpadi sasanakal
    vettuvittu kudutta parisu......"

    Alur Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    Epigraphica Carnatica - Vol 9, - Inscription No 76









    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Last edited by virarajendra; 21st February 2014 at 09:37 PM.

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    really feels good to read...
    I Love this blog TravelNThrill.

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    Mr Ilekani's Reply included from former Part - 5 to present Part - 2

    A book just came out on this topic. I haven't read it yet but it has been well-received:

    Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: reflections on Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia
    Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany, Vijay Sakhuja, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

    "The expansion of the Cholas from their base in the Kaveri Delta saw this growing power subdue the kingdoms of southern India, as well as occupy Sri Lanka and the Maldives, by the early eleventh century. It was also during this period that the Cholas initiated links with Song China. Concurrently, the Southeast Asian polity of Sriwijaya had, through its Sumatran and Malayan ports, come to occupy a key position in East-West maritime trade, requiring engagement with both Song China to the north and the Chola kingdom to its west. The apparently friendly relations pursued were, however, to be disrupted in 1025 by Chola naval expeditions against fourteen key port cities in Southeast Asia. This volume examines the background, course and effects of these expeditions, as well as the regional context of the events. It brings to light many aspects of this key period in Asian history. Unprecedented in the degree of detail assigned to the story of the Chola expeditions, this volume is also unique in that it includes translations of the contemporary Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions relating to Southeast Asia and of the Song dynasty Chinese texts relating to the Chola Kingdom."

    http://books.google.com/books/about/...d=2swhCXJVRzwC

    It might be more useful to consolidate discussion and share academic sources than to start so many multicolored threads on the subject.
    Last edited by virarajendra; 9th December 2013 at 09:06 PM.

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    Dear Reader,

    My Research Article titled "The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore & Thailand", is an extension of my original Reaserach Paper in English titled "The Medieval Chola Empire and its relations with Malaysia and Indonesia" and read at the 6th International Tamil Conference/Seminar held at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia in the year - 1987, at the sessions presided by Dr Noburu Karashima and in the presense of Dr Singharavelu of the same University and many other Scholars from other countries.

    My Research Studies on the Relations of the Medieval Chola Empire with the other countries has been further split into seperate Research Articles, and are already appearing in the Forum Hub & Mayyam Hub. They are as follows:

    (1) Chola Empire and its relations with Kerala, India
    (2) Chola Empire and its relations with Miyanmar (Burma)
    (3) Chola Empire and its relations with Sri Lanka
    (4) Chola Empire and its relations with Maldive Islands
    (5) Chola Empire and its relations with the Chinese Empire - and now
    (6) Chola Empire and its relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand & Cambodia. (inclusive of Andhaman & Nicobar Islands)

    There are also Research Articles on the Chola Empire and its relations with countries in the Indian Mainland up to the North India inclusive of present Bangaladesh and east of West Pakistan in this same Website.

    The details of sources of Historical Evidences from Archaelogical Remains & Excavations, Inscriptions, original Historical Documents of the respective countries and from Tamil Nadu, Travel Writings etc etc also with relevent Photographs will be incorporated when these Research Articles are consolidated and published in a Printed Book Format.

    There is an original Research Article of mine on Kulothunga Cholas - 1's war expedition to South-East Asia and on his connections with Chinese Empire in Tamil, which is now stored in the Files Section of the Ponniyin Selvan Varalaattru Peravai Website with complete list evidences from Tamil Inscriptions and Tamil Historical Sources.

    Many of my Threads on other Subjects especially on Religion incorporates all evidences and sources, but Thread on Historical Studies only the Research Article titled "The great Significance of Kodungallur of Kerala in the History of Kerala and Tamil Nadu" incorporates complete list of References & Sources of evidences.

    The Readers who go through my lengthy articles may find it boring and may just read them on surface, and may miss many valuable informations on the subject of the respective Titles. For such Readers who have no patience to read peacefully through my lengthy articles, at least to highlight the important informations the muti-colour fonts are used.

    With the switch-on from the "Old Mayyam Hub" to "New Mayyam Hub" each Thread had facilities only to accomodate a maximum of 10,000 charactors per Thread. After "my request" to the Owners of this Website, they improved the facilities in this Website to accommodate a maximum of 50,000 charactors per thread from earlier maximum of 10,000 charactors. Hence my 5 - Parts Article has now been reduced to 2 - parts. The EMPTY Part 3, Part 4 & Part 5 will be deleted by the Moderators (by Mr NOV) themselves soon, as we still lack the facilities to modify the Heading of each Threads, and also delete any of our own Threads unwanted - by ourselves like in the "Old Mayyam Hub".

    Thanks.
    Last edited by virarajendra; 13th July 2013 at 04:41 PM.

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    brought forward

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    brought forward

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