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Thread: Brief historical study of Chithamparam Aadavallaan (Nadarajar) Thirukkoyil - Part 3

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    Brief ‘historical study’ of "Chithamparam Aadavallaan (Nadarajar) Thirukkoyil" - Part 3
    continued from part - 2


    The medieval Chola empire reached it's greater limits during the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) and it's peak during the period of his son Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1012-1044) stretching far overseas into South-East Asia.

    There is a fragmentary Inscription with a portion of the Meikeerththi of of Rajaraja Chola - 1 found on the platform of the steps in the front main entrance which goes to indicate that this king too made some grants or possibly made some renovation or construction of a part of the temple during his period which, we are unabe to positively conclude due to this incomplete inscription, and any other inscriptions of his period being not available.

    During the period of rule of Rajaraja Chola - 1 on one of his vists to the Thiruvaarur Theagarajar Thirukkoyil, heard the beautiful Tamil Thevaarap Pathikams of the three foremost among the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints being sung by the worshippers. These Tamil Thevarems absorbed Rajaraja Chola -1 imensely, and he decided to bring forth the practice of recitation of Thevarems back in all Siva temples in Tamil Nadu which were scarcely being sung during his time, and the Thevarem Ola-leaf Manuscripts too were not easily available.

    He requested the Tamil Saiva Sage Nambiaandaar Nambi of Thirunaaraiyur an ardent devotee of God Pillaiyaar (Vinaayakar) to assist him in locating all Thevaarep Pathikams manuscripts of all Tamil Saiva Saints. He in turn advised the Chola emperor that one set of copies of the entire lot of all Thevarems manuscripts were being kept in a room at the Thillai Adavallaan Thirukkoyil Library.

    On the request of Rajaraja - 1 he approached the Thillaivaal Anthanar Muvaayiraver to gain accesss to same. They indicated to him that the 'Naalver' - the foremost four of the Tamil Saiva Saints be present at Thillai Aadavallaan Thirukkoyil in order for them to open the room door of the library at this temple.

    On hearing of same the emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 with images of the four great Tamil Saiva Saint personally went to Thillai Aadavallaan Thirukkoyil, and the Thillai Anthanar Muvaayiravar seeing the Images of the four Saints being brought with the emperor and unable to refuse his orders opened out the room where the Thevaaram Ola Manuscripts were kept stored.

    To the great disppointment of the emperor, he found many of the Thevarem Ola Manuscripts were perished eaten by while-ants due to neglect by Thillaivaal Anthanar Muvaayiravar. Rajaraja Chola instructed Nambi Aandaar Nambi to initially collect all manuscripts that were recoverable and to classify them according to each Saiva Saints who composed them, which was done by him into eight Thurumurais. - to be contd



    During the period of Rajendra Chola - 1 the son of Rajaraja Chola - 1 the Thillai Aadavallaan Thirukkoyil extended as far as the first Thirutchchuttru (enclosure) constructed of granite stone. An inscription of the 36th year of Rajendra Chola - 1 is seen on the wall of the first Thiruchchuttru, on a donation of land of 40 veli which yeilded 4500 kalam of paddy yelding 265 kasu with 40 kasu from another source formed a fund for the expenses in the temple, administered by Traders, Vellalar, Sankarapaadiyar Saliyar, Pattinavar and other people.

    There is another inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on this same wall of 'this same year', some grants were made for recitation of "Thiruththondar Thokai" Pathikam of the Tamil Saiva Saint Suntharamoorththy Naayanar in front of the 'Thiruchittrampalam shrine' during the festival of Maasi Makam.

    There is a further inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on this wall which states, one of the Queens namely Nakkan Paravaiyaar provided grants of 44 veli of land and 305 kasu for recitation of "Thiruththondar Thokai" Pathikam during the Thiruvaathirai Thiruvilaa and for feeding rice for 1000 worshippers in the month of Aani.

    It was during the period of Vikkrama Chola (A.D.1118-1135) whose period of reign was free from much aggressive wars with other countries, and devoted more time on many 'religious feats' especially in the structural expanion and developent of Thillai Aadavallaan Thrukkoyil.

    During the period of Vikkrama Chola he paved gold roofing over the Ponnambalam, Thirukkodungai, Thirumaalikai surrounding the Ponnambalam (Kanaka Sabai) and on the Kooda Saalaikal at the entrance to the gopuram nd on the beautiful Palipeedam. Even the Ther (Chariot) used in the procession of Thillaikkooththar was covered with gold sheets and pearl vadangal. The Perambalam at Thilli was paved with copper roofing.

    He also built an audience hall for people to listen to the 'Thiruppathiyam' (Thirumanthiram) of the Siththar Saint Thirumoola Nayanaar. He also built the "Nootrukaal Mantapam" (100 pillered hall) to God Siva at Thillai and the larger Thiruchchuttru Maalikai. 'The Putkarani' the sacred tank at Thillai was paved with stone. He built Mandapam for pilgrims to stay and arranged for lighting at night with oil lamps the principal streets adjoining the temple, and a Madam in this street for the temple priests.

    The Thiruppathiyams (Thevaarems) of the three foremost Tamil Saiva Saints were written on copper plates and preserved at this temple. He also made a flower garden in the vicinity of this temple. Near the sea adjacent to this temple he built a Mandapam for pilgrms to relax after their holybath in the sea on the auspicious day of 'Maasi Makam'. He also built a large water tank with sluice for the benefit of the Thillaivaal Anthanar.

    The Thiruchchuttrumaalikai adjacent to the inner roadway was named after him as Vikkramacholan Thirumaalikai". The golden vessel for neiveththiyam (ofering) and other utensils were made of gold and provided to Aadavallaan at Cittrambalam. All these meritorius work of Vikkrama Chola were completed in the month of May in A.D.1128. He also arranged a big 'Thiruvilaa' on the day of his birth star the 'Uthirattaathi' at the Chithamparam temple.

    During the period of is son the Kulothunga Chola - 2 (A.D.1133-1150) built the Maalikai, Peedikai, Maadam, Gopuram, Soolikai and Theruvum Thoranamum surrounding the Chittrampalam and Thiru Peru Perampalam of God Siva. He also paved with pure gold plates the Aludaiyaan Koyil Thiru Kama Kottam (Amman Temple) and the temple entrance Thiruchuttru Maalikai.

    (6) The period of Paandiya dynasty of Tamil Nadu

    The Paandiyas are also one of the 'three traditional Tamil royal dynasties of Tamil Nadu' who too ruled from the first Thamil Sangam period the Paandiya Naadu. They also from time to time had their losses and gains in ruling their territorial region.

    The Chola empire gradually diminished in size in the thirteenth century and in the year A.D.1219 disinegrated with the invasion of Maravarman Sunderapaandiyan - 1 (A.D.1216-1238). The Chola ciities the Thanjavur and Uraiyur met severe destruction in th hand of Paandiyas, after which Sunderapaandiyan entered Thiru-Puliyoor (Thillai) and reached the Thirukkoyil of Siva. He was delighted in worshiping the Adavallaan and the Devi (Sivakami) at Thiru-Ponnambalam with the 'Thillai Aadavallaan Thirkkoyil now coming under the control of Paandiya kings from Cholas nearly after 400 years, with the victory of the former over the latter.

    The Paandiya king Sadaiyavarman Sunderapaandiyan - 1 (A.D.1251-1271) on throne went on war expeditions to the Karnataka region. He after his victory over the Karnataka and Hoysala kings, on his return went to Thillaiambalam and worshiped the God Aadavallaan. He gave (thaanam of) gold weighed agaist his weight (Thulaapaaram) to the temple and paved part of the temple with gold sheets.

    It was he who bulit the western southern Raja Gopuram of the Thillai Aadavallan Thirukkoyil which was earlier known as "Sundara Paandiyan Gopuram". He also built the western Raja Gopuram. This gopuram is unique as it has many small panels each depicting various dancing poses stipulated in the Bhartha Natiya Nool (Sastra) sequenced and carved vertically within the entrance gateway of the Raja Gopuram.

    During the period of Sadaiyavarman Sunderapaandiyan - 1, he appointed (his brother) Sadaiyavarman Virapaandiyan (A.D.1253-1268) as his co-regent of Chola Nadu, Nadu Naadu, and Thondai Nadu (i.e. the top half of present Tamil Nadu). This took place after his victory over the Pallava Chieftain Ko-Perum Singhan - 2, Chola Nadu, Kongu Nadu and the reion of the Telungu Chola (Choda) Vijayakanda Gopalan on behalf of Sadaiyavarman Sundra Paandiyan.

    Sadaiyavarman Virpaandiyan thereafter celebrated his vira-abhisekam and vijaya-abhiskam at the 100 - pillered hall at Thillai Aadavallaan Thirukkoyil earlier known as 'Vikkrama Cholan Thirumantapam'. With this occasion it was re-named as vira 'Vira Pandiyan Thirumantapam'.

    Last edited by virarajendra; 7th April 2013 at 06:47 PM.

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