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Thread: Rajaraja Chola - 1's Pallippadai Temple or Palace Memorial

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    Rajaraja Chola - 1's Pallippadai Temple or Palace Memorial


    Author: Virarajendra

    Rajaraja Chola - 1's Pallippadai Temple or Palace Memorial

    Recent discovery of an Inscription at Paalkulaththu Amman Temple Doorway - Stone Pillars, and a half buried Sivalingam at Udaiyaalur has drawn the interest of many which were claimed to be from the Palippadai temple of Rajaraja Chola - 1(A.D.985-1014).

    The discovery of the Inscription and Sivalingam, and the views of Scholars in connection with same are portrayed in the following two You-Tube Videos, which the Readers are requested to view first, before reading this Thread





    I wish to make a 'further review' on the studies that have been `already made' by some Scholars on the "so called" Pallippadai Temple of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) at Udaiyaalur, in Palayaarai.

    On comparing the readings of the Inscription on the Paalkulaththu Amman Temple Doorway Stone Pillars given by "Kudanthai S.Sethuraman" in his book titled 'Aaivukk Katturaikal - vol 2', and the fresh reading made by the "Varalaaru.com Team" on their special visit to this Site, as seen from Dr Kalaikkovan's article titled "Udaiyaaluril Pallippadaiyaa ?" appearing in the www.varalaaru.com vol - 1, we note there is slight difference in the words of the Inscriptions in their two readings.

    However for the purpose of my discussion, first I wish to take only a section of the reading of this Inscription from what has been provided by these two Scholars, which fortunately remains same in their words.

    This reading is as follows:

    ".....Sri Sivapaathasekara Mangalaththu eluntharuli nintra - Sri Rajaraja Thevar aana Sri Sivapaathasekara Thevar thirumaalikai......" (an Inscription of his 42th year from A.D.1070 = A.D.1112)

    In the above reading of the Inscription we will try to understand what is meant by the words underlined. What does realy "eluntharuli nintra Sri Rajaraja Thevar" mean ??. Under normal understanding we could possibly take it to mean that "Rajaraja was bodily present at the….thirumaalikai".

    A similer usage of the word "eluntharuli" could be seen in an Inscription in the Thiruvarur Temple, where the bodily presence of Rajendra Chola - 1 and Anukkiyaar Paravai Nangai on a chariot is referred to as follows, in the same sense.

    "......Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarum Anukkiyaar Paravai Nangaiyaarum Ther mel eluntharuli......". Hence it is clear "eluntharuli" means being bodily presence at a place.

    The Paalkulaththu Amman Temple - Pillar Inscription belongs to the period of Kulothunga Chola - 1(A.D.1070-1120). Since it mentions "eluntharuli nintra Sri Rajaraja Thevar" it is impossible for Rajaraja Chola - 1 to be bodily present nearly 98 - years later during the period of Kulothunga Chola - 1 at "Sivapaathasekara Thevar Thirumaalikai".

    Hence it is clear it was an Idol of "Sri Rajaraja Thevar" that would have been consecrated within the Palace known as "Sri Sivapaathasekara Thevar Thirumaalikai" at Sri Sivapaathasekara Mangalam. The normal Palace of Rajaraja known as Maalikai has been pre-fixed with the word "Thiru" possibly because this Palace has been turned into Memorial Palace.

    Daily Poosai valipaadukal "would have taken place" to this Idol of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and "possibly" it was considered that Sri Rajarajadever alias Sivapathasekaran will manifest himself (eluntharuli as the divinity) in this Idol and bless his worshippers.

    The "Tamil and English Dictionary' of Miron Winslow gives the meaning to "eluntharula" as – "to become present or manifest as the divinity in an Idol on consecration" which confirms the above inferance.

    Further from the continuation of the above Inscription (refer www.varalaaru.com) it follows that the dilaptated big "Thiru Mantapam" (sacred hall) in front of the Sivapathasekaran Maalikai was rebuilt on behalf of the Velaan Arikesavanatha Kasirajan of the village Pidavur (problably funded by him), executed through the head of the village "Sivapaathasekara Mangalam" namely Jayasingha Kulakaala valanaattu, Kulamangala naattu, Saaththa Mangalaththu (Saaththa Mangalam - his native village) - 'Saaththamangalamudaiyaan nam Pidaaren Naadaripukalan', along with two other Pidaarer of this village (Sivapaathasekara Mangalam) named Rajendra Chola Uthaiya Nayakanaana Esaana Sivar and Thevan Abayamaana Arangkaatti Pitchchar. From the above we note it was three Pidaarer who executed the rebuilding of the dilapitated big Mantapam in front of the Sivapaathaseara Thirumaalikai at Sivapaathasekara Mangalam.

    From Rajarajaeswarem temple Inscriptions we are aware the Pidaarer were the Tamil Saiva Temple Priests who conducted the temple Poosai Valipaadukal, and recited the Tamil Thirumuraikal at the time of worship. There were collective settlements of the Pidaarer - the Tamil Saiva Priests and were known as Mangalams, where as the collective settlements of the Sanskrit Vedic Priests were known as Chathurvedi Mangalams.

    Hence it is gleaned from the Inscription under reference, that the head of the Saivite Priests village known as 'Sivapaathsekara Mangalam' was a Pidaaren, who was earlier a native of another Saivite Priests village known as the 'Saaththa Mangalam'.

    Further 'Maalikai' means a (king's) palace. We see many Maalikais being mentioned in the Chola Inscriptions, seated from where they made proclamations and orders which were executed by his Officers. Hence we note the Rajaraja Chola's Maalikai was possibly was his Palace where he spent the last days of his life situated at the village 'Sivapaathasekara Mangalam'. That could been the reason this village has been called after one of his name as 'Sivapaathsekara Mangalam' and the Palace as Sivapaathasekaran Maalikai.

    It appears after his death the Pidaarer of the 'Sivapathasekara Mangalam' would have consecrated an idol of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (elentharuli nintra) at his Palace 'Sivapaathasekaran Maalikai', and conducted Poosai Valipaadukal and reciting Tamil Thirumuraikal to his soul's merit and for his manifestation as a divinity in the idol, virtually making it a Memorial temple and was under the supervision of these Pidaarer of the 'Sivapathasekara Mangalam'.

    A "Pallippadai" Temple is a monumental temple of a king or queen built over the vault having their ashes after their death, with a basement over same and a Sivalingham consecrated over it, and were "also" called as "Eswarems".

    As the Inscription under reference doesnot mention the words "Pallipadai" or "Eswarem" but only as the "Sivapathasekara Thevar Thirumaalikai" it could have been possible that his Palace was made sacred (Thirumaalikai), where Emperor Rajaraja Chola's Idol was consecrated and worshiped at Udaiyalur in Palaiyaari (the heraditary capital of Cholas). It could be possible that the Pillar now seen with the Inscription at Paalkulaththu Amman Temple Doorway, could have been the Pillars of this Memorial Palace.

    The Sivalingam which is seen presently partly buried at Udaiyalur, could have been possibly from another Siva Temple, which "would have been standing closer" to this Memorial Palace.

    The above "inferance is only a possibility", but more light can be thrown on this "Pallippadai" mystery only if the Archaeological Department arranges 'a very deep exacavation around this partly buried Sivalingam and the Pedestal', with a view of removng it out completely from its present position, possibly to discover more informations below and around it.



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Last edited by virarajendra; 20th June 2014 at 04:34 PM.

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    Well written piece!
    B.I. Sivamaalaa (Ms)

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    M/s Sivamaalaa mikka nandri.

    Virarajendra
    Last edited by virarajendra; 17th February 2011 at 07:31 AM.

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    Brought Forward

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    Quote Originally Posted by virarajendra View Post
    Brought forward
    Any news about the descendants of the Cholas, Mr Virarajendra?
    B.I. Sivamaalaa (Ms)

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    nice article.. giving different perspectives on this issue.. illaatha onna, irukkunu solli news-kkaaga sensationalize pannalaam.. unmai ennanu namma 100% teriyurathu mudiyaatha kaariyam thaan ..
    yEndA sAmI ippidi Tamil iLakkaNa muRaippaDi eluthurEnu uyira vAngureenga ..

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    brought forward

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