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Thread: Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil 2

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    Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil 2



    UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    (4) at the third floor level

    Above the third Artha Maandapam is a small "Open Enclosure" but of smaller width unlike the Artha Mandapam at the other levels, but with another doorway in front also facing in the same eastern direction, and two side slotted stone windows, but with no Maha Mandapam or Open Terrace in front of same.

    This enclosure terrace is in front of the Dakkshina Meru Vidandakar Stone Panel on the Vimanam. There should have been an approach stairway to this open enclosure terrace area too and possibly the daily religious rituals was also done to the Dakkshina Meru Vidandakar on the Stone Panel on the east face of the Vimanam.

    On all the top edge walls of the third Mahamandapam possibly was decorated with equi-spaced Nandi all right round. We even on the short width side walls on the forth level enclosure with final finish has three small Nandis on them. These damaged and dismanled Mahamandapams on the first level and second level would have been with stone windows all around for ventilation as seen in the existing ground floor Mahamantapam.

    From the three levels of Arthamandapam there are doorway on the western side too leading in the the Karuvarai of the temple.

    At the third level Artha Mandapam which is reached from the second level Arthamandapam by a stairway within second level Mahamandapam.the There appears to be another doorway at this level on the Karuvarai side which is possibly a corridor right round the base of the joint level Karuvarai and the start of the Vimanam over it.

    (c) Muha Mantapam

    The Mukha Mandapam is located in front of the Maha Mandapam with two stairway going downwards on the either sides of the Mukha Mandapam. There is no Stairway in front of the Mukha Mandapam at Gangaokonda Choleswarer temple like at Rajarajaeswarem temple at Thanjavur. Further there had been a Roofing Shelter over the Mukha Mandapam as in the latter temple which is now fully destroyed, which is further confirmed by two carved pillers standing at the end the wall with a wide opening in front, enabling a view of the inside of the Mukha Mandapam from the outside of the temple.



    (d) Chandeswarar Shrine

    Closer to the northern main entrance stairway leading to the outside from the ground level Artha Mantapam of the big temple, is the seperate small temple shrine to Lord Chandeswarer.

    (e) Original Granite Nanthi

    There exists the small Nanthi of granite in the Muka Mandapam (with roofing shelter fully destroyed) of Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple with two stairways going downwards on either sides - outside the main entrance to Mahamandapam with two Dwarapalas on both sides. There is a big Nanthi of Standstone outside and in front of the Muka Mandapam which is of a latter period construction.



    None of them seems to be the "original main granite Nanthi" of Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple, as the granite Nanthi is comparitively very smaller than the original Nanthi of the Rajarajeswarem temple at Thanjavur. The "original main granite Nanthi" of Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple should have been of the same height and size of the latter Nanthi or bigger. (See Images below). It could possibilty be that the "main granite Nanthi" of Gangaikonda Choleswarer was destroyed in war or carried away as a war victory monument and lost to us today. The existing big Nanthi of Sandstone was erected during the period of rule of the Vijayanagara kings (of Karnataka) over this region. There is an inscription built into the platform of Nanthi of Sandstone, refering to a grant provided for a Sandi lamp.

    ] (The Original Nandi of Thanjavur Rajarajeswarem Temple presently kept at the Thiruchuttru Malikai of the same temple)


    (f) Katthala Velimuttram

    Surrounding the main temple structure comprising of 'Karuvarai with Vimanam', Maha Mantapam and Muha Mantapam all in integral, is a vast Katthala Velimuttram (Stone-paved Outeryard) within the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai.

    (g) Thiruchchuttru Maalikai

    On the order of the emperor Rajaraja Chola, the single floor enclosure cloister (thiru-chuttru-maaligai) which surrounds the Rajarajaeswarem temple was caused to be built by his general (Senathipati) Sri-Krishnan Raman alias Mummudi-Chola-Brahma-Marayan.. This connects to the second Gopuram from the main entrance being called as the Rajarajan Thiruvaayil.

    The Thiruchchuttru Maalikai going all round the Katthala Velimuttram measures internally 500 ft length and 250 ft width and externally 800 ft length and 400 ft width. The entire cross section of this Thirucchuttru Maalikai comprises of an long Ullaalai (Inner Corridor) of single Tier, with an integral outer Wall having a height over the Ulaalai upto 28 ft.

    On the top four corners of the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai integral Wall there are four Sikarams, and inbetween these Sikarams along the top perimeter of the Wall, are the equi-spaced same size Nanthis to be seen.

    Within the Ullaalai of the Thiruchchuttru Malikai there were some smaller Shrines of the Parivaara Theivangkal (accompanying Deities).

    (h) East Gopura Vaayil


    Courtesy : 'Sashidharan' of Facebook

    There was only one Gopura Vaayil (main entrances) at the Gangaikonda Choliswarer temple. This Vaayil had an ornate Gopuram of ..... ft height in three tiers. This connects on both sides to the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai and Puramathil going right round the temple. The Thiruchuttru Maalikai Puramathil had small eqi-spaced Nanthis all round on the top of the Puramathil with ornate minor Gopurams at the four corners, like the Puramathil at the Rajarajeswarem temple at Thanjavur. This Puramathil on all four sides were named as "Rajendra Cholan Thirumathil".

    --------
    (i) Velichchuttru between the Thiruchchuttru Malikai and Pura Mathil

    The Velichuttru

    Pura Mathil



    Tamil Inscriptions on the Granite Structures of the Temple Complex

    There are eleven Inscriptions nine of them are inscribed on the east, west, and north Granite Walls of the Second Pirakara connected to the half dilapitated Granite Structure of the Main Entrance Gopuram of the Temple. Among them the Inscription of Virarajendra Chola (A.D.1063-1070) the fourth son of Rajendra Chola - 1 is the longest inscribed Inscription of this period in this Temple. Other Inscriptions belong to that of Later Paandiya Kings and others namely, two of Maravarman Kulasekara Paandiyan, Konerimaikondaan Vikkrama Paandiyan, Konerimaikondaan Sri Sunthara Paandiyan, two of Ekambaran Gangeyan, Kulothunga Chola - 1, and one inscription of Virupaksharayer son of Malikarujunadeva Maharayar the Vijayanagara king. (S.I.I.Vol 4 - Nos 522-530)



    Important Note:

    In the above Video it is mentioned that we have "only one" Inscription found at Gangaikonda Choleswarem Temple, and that too is of Rajadhiraja Chola - 1, 'which is totally incorrect'. There are no Inscriptions belonging to Rajadhiraja Chola -1 is to be found at Gangaikonda Choleswarem Temple. However in the first and lengthiest Inscription engraved at this temple in the year A.D 1068 of Virarajendra Chola includes the details of the earlier endowments made to the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple by his "father" Rajendra Chola - 1 refered to as "Purvadesamum, Gangaiyum, Kadaramum kondarulina Iyyer" in the year A.D.1035 and A.D.1036 and his "elder brother" Rajadhiraja Chola - 1 refered to as "Kalyanapuramum Kollapuramum kondarulina Anai mel thunjina Annar" in the year A.D.1044 and A.D.1048. It also enumerates the endowments made to this temple by Virarajendra Chola himself in the year A.D.1068. Further we are aware that around twenty Inscriptions have been discovered on the main temple on it's outer walls of the Karuvarai, Mahamandapam and Mukhamandapam and further nineteen Inscriptions of other kings in the subshrine of Durga and other minor buildings within the complex and on broken slabs found in the second Pirakara within the Temple, and one on it's Eastern Gopuram as at today. Further an oversight error in this Video in respect of the period of rule by Rajendra Chola - 1 too should be corrected to be as A.D.1012 - 1044, instead of A.D.1012 - 1014.

    There had been many Scholars (T.N.Subramanian, Dr R.Nagaswamy, Dr T.V.Mahalingam, Dr Kudavayil Balasubramanian, Dr L.Thyagarajan, and Dr Pierre Pichard) who have ventured in the study of the Inscriptions at Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temple, in the other Shrines and on broken Slabs lying within this Temple Complex. The best indepth research that has been made in the study of these Inscriptions is that by the Scholar - Dr Daud Ali of University of Pensilveniya, USA" who visited Tamil Nadu and had made a "research study" and written a book titled as "The Epigraphical Legacy at Gangaikondacholapuram: Problems and Possibilities" which is the currently the "most informative book" on all Inscriptions that had been copied 'up to now' at Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temple complex at Gangaikonda Cholapuram in Ariyalur district, Tamil Nadu.

    I with much courtesy to him, extracting only the details of these 39 - Inscriptions with the valuable Informations available on them, which includes many recently discovered Inscriptions which have still not been officially published in the South Indian Inscription Journals and not known to many as given in his Book (pages 21-26), and a Diagram (Page 19) showing the actual locations of these Inscriptions in this Temple which have been verified and confirmed by him - are appended below in his own words. My very sincere gratitude to him for the valuable services he has done in this connectiom - which is a great asset to the Historical Community of Tamil Nadu, and to the upcoming Students in the study of Epigraphy of Tamil Nadu.


    Before venturing into the study of these 39 - Inscriptions, it should be noted that there had been another Inscription on the "Vimaana" (tower over Garbagraha) of the Gangaikonda Choliswarem Temple (making a total of 40 - Inscriptions) noted by T.N.Subramanian (South Indian Temple Inscriptions Vol 1, Page 678), which has still not been re-traced by the subsequent ASI Surveyors and it's actual location confirmed. Trust some enthusiastic young Researchers will take an initiative to locate same on the Vimaana and publish informations on same. The text of the fragmental Inscription said to be on the Vimana is as follows: "suba sri racentira cola tevarkku yantu.....mahesura raksha". In my view it doesnot appear as a fragment of an Inscription, but an epitome on Rajendra Chola - 1 engraved on the Vimana of the great temple built by him to God Siva meaning "the blessings of Maheshwara (God Siva) 'be with' ('yaantu') prosperous Sri Rajendra Chola Thevar".

    Further I myself have noted a short damaged Inscription on the plinth just under the "seated Chandeswara with a Garland being wound on his hair-knot by God Siva (now interpreted as Rajendra Chola - 1 being blessed by God Siva with a Garland being wound on his hair-knot). In this Inscription the Tamil Characters - 'vi' 'sha'(Sanskrit Letter) 'thi' 'ra' 'ja' and few other non-Tamil Characters could be seen with the naked eye, without any enstampage being taken of same. This short Inscription 'has not been refered to by any Scholars upto now', which has to be studied by competant Epigrapers at site and readings be published in Epigrapical Journals.
    (See the Photographs below)

    The first Photo-Image has a thin horizontal stone slab below Chandikeswara (or Rajendra Chola - 1 ????) Stone-Image has this piece of Inscription which is enlarged and shown in the second Photo-Image below.

    From the Hottur Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 (Epigraphia Indica - XVI, Page 74) we note Rajendra Chola was known as "Rajendra Vidyadhara". Is this short Inscription is referring to the so-called Chandikeswara Image as that of Rajendra Chola - 1 - to be verified.




    The Inscriptions at Gangaikonda Choleswarem Temple complex 'as classified' by the Scholar "Dr Daud Ali" of the University of Pensilveniya, USA

    Inscriptions on the Central Shrine

    (1) King/Date - Virarajendradeva, Year - 5 (1068 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Mutilated. Records the kings order issued when he was in his palace at Kanchipuram
    relating to a number of villages assigned as tevatana to the temple of Gangaikondacholiswarem.
    essary entries were madein tax registers regarding these villages by a number of King's officers.
    Some of the villages had been assigned to the temple in the reigns of Rajendra - 1 and Rajadhiraja
    Minute details of the assessment of all the assigned villagesare given in the Inscription.
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda, padma, and jagadi of the north and west walls of central shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 529 ARE 82 of 1892

    (2) King/Date - Kulottunka - 1, Year - 41 (1111 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Damaged and unfinished Tamil and Grantha inscription, beginning with the meykkirrtti of king beginning with the words
    "pukal culnta" and followed after the date by two verses of a Gahadvala prasasti.
    Location (confirmation) - on the west wall of the central shrine of the main temple.Located
    Publication - Unpublished ARE of 29 of 1908

    (3) King/Date - Kulottunka - 1, Year - 49 (1119 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Beginning of each line lost. Commences with the poetic introduction beggining pukalmatu vilanka.
    Records gift by thr king of land as devatana-iraiyili in Cungatavirnta-colanallur to a temple of Rajendra Chola Isvaramudaiyar at pottali matam. the gift was made by the king while he was in his palace at Gangaikondacholapuram on a petition made by a ascetic (tapasi0 of the temple that the services were at a standstill for want of endowments.
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the west wall of the central shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 527 ARE 80 of 1892

    (4) King/Date - Konerinmai-kondan Sundara Pandiyadeva - 2, Year - 2 (1253 AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya
    Details - Registers remission of all taxes and dues on number of lands belonging to the temple to .conduct services in temple called Sundara Pandya Sandhi. Lands were free from taxes such as minpattam, tari-irai, tottapattam, katai ayam etc
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of the main shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 524 ARE 77 of 1892

    (5) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 5 (1273 AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya
    Details - Incomplete. Records the sale of lands belonging to number of individuals to temple Gangaikondacholisvaram.
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of the main shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 525 ARE 78 of 1892

    (6) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya
    Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892

    (7) King/Date - Konerimai-kontan Vikrama-Pandyadeva, Year - 6 (1289 AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya
    Details - -Registers gift of 20 veli of land by the king for a special service called Rajakkanayan-Sandi instituted after the name of the king as tax free land to the temple authorities of the temple of -Udaiyar at Gangaikontacolapuram in Mannaikontacola-valanadu in Vikramacolavalanatu..."
    Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of main shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 523 ARE 76 of 1892

    (8) King/Date - Tribhuvanacakravartin, Year - ? (???? AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya
    Details - Probably belongs to reign of Sundera Pandiya
    Location (confirmation) - On the south wall of the central shrine of the main temple. Could be unidentified inscription on the mahamantapa Not Located
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 31 of 1908

    (9) King/Date - no king mentioned Year - Subhanu (1??? AD)
    Dynasty - Vijayanagara ? (my view it could be possibly a Sambuvarayar king ?? to be verfied)
    Details - Damaged. Records the gift of the Chief Tiruvenkatamudaiyan mentioned in No: 10 below. may have been a subordinate of Vijayanagara king.
    Location (confirmation) - On the west wall of the central shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 528 ARE 81 of 1892

    (10) King/Date - ----------------, Year - Saka 1385 expired - Subhanu (c.1463 AD)
    Dynasty - Vijayanagara
    Details - Damaged. Mentions one Thiruvenkatamutaiyan Ekamrannatha Gangeyan of Vaippur, a chief who seems to have been in control of this area at the end of fifteenth century.
    Location (confirmation) - On the padma of the west wall of the main shrine. Located
    Publication - SII 4, 526 ARE 79 of 1892

    (11) King/Date ----------- , Year Saka 1384 Exp (1462 AD)
    Dynasty - Vijayanagara
    Details - much damaged; mentions Devaraya once and mallikarujunaraya twice.
    Location (confirmation) - On the west wall of the Central shrine of the main temple. Located
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 83 of 1908.

    (12) King/Date - Praudha Virupaksaraya, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
    Dynasty - Vijayanagara
    Details - Son of Mallikarjuna
    Location (confirmation) - On the right of the entrance in the north wall of the same pirakara. Not Located
    Publication - SII 4, 530 ARE 83 of 1892

    Inscriptions on the Mahamandapa

    (13) King/Date - Adirajendra, Year ----- (In my viewthe date should be between 1066 - 1070 A.D)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragmentary. Mentions Talikkulam (old word for Tanjavur]. Seems to record provisions made for a perpetual lamp probably by one Marutan, a pendatti of the Thirumancanattar velam. This women is also mentioned in No: 29 below (326 of 1965)
    Location (confirmation) - Built onto the southern steps of the platform abutting the central shrine of the main temple.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 323 of 1965

    (14) King/Date - [Kulottunka II, Year] - ------ (------ AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragmentary. Contains portions of the meykkirti beginning pumevalar... Seems to record grant of land for the procession of the deity during festival. Mentions the names of few mechants such as Tillaiyal(i) ati vitantakan etc and refers to Karikalasolacaturvedimangalam and a devadana iraiyili.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragments built into the padma forming the base of the same platform of the mahamandapa of the main shrine.
    Publication - Unpublised ARE 315 of 1965

    (15) King/Date - [Kulottunka - III], Year - [13] (1191 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Damaged, with beginning lines lost. Commences with the eulogistic introduction puyal vayttu, indicating it is probably dated to the reign of Kulottunka - 3. Refers to a royal writ and an installation in the temple. Mentions Virudarajabhayanka valanatu and Merkal - [natu].
    Location (confirmation) - On the mahamandapa, east wall, outer tier, on kumuda of northeast corner of mahamandapa.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 319 of 1965.

    (16) King/Date - Kulottunka - III
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragment. containing a portion of the historical introduction of the king.
    Location (confirmation) - On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 32 of 1908

    (17) King/Date - [Kulottunka Year ----- (---- AD)
    Dynasty - [Chola] characters of twelfth century.
    Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record a grant for two Sandi lams.
    Location (confirmation) - Stones built into the southernsteps of the platfor abutting the central shrine of the main temple.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 324 of 1965.

    (18) King/Date - Tribhuvana (cakravartin), Year - ----- (----- AD)
    Dynasty - Pandiya ?
    Details - End of each line mutilated.
    Location (confirmation) - On the eastern wall of the mahamandapa.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 34 of 1908

    (19) King/Date - ---------------------- Year - Saka 1319 (1397 AD)
    Dynasty - Vijayanagara
    Details - Very damaged. Records an agreement between some temple the nattar and the (tandirimar) of Paraiyur-natu and sthanattar in the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram-utaiya-nayanar regarding some temple lands.
    Location (confirmation) - North wall of mahamandapa close to central shrine. Located. misdescribed in ARE Report.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 320 of 1965

    Inscriptions on the Muhamandapa

    (20) King/Date - Kulottunka -1, Year - ------ (------ AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Contains two Sanskrit verses in the wherein the conquest of a fort, victory over the Pandiya and setting up of a pillar of a victory are mentioned.
    Location (confirmation) - Stone fixed into the wall of the platform at the entrance into the muhamandapa. Located
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 709 of 1963

    (21) King/Date - Kulottunka - 3, Year - 11 (1189 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Records the donation of flywhisks to the deity made with an amount of pon of 8 mari weighed by Koyilankadik-kal by Ammankaiyalvar, daughter of Colatever and one flywhisk made with 20 pon of 8 mari weighed by the same stone by Pukaliyalvar, daughter of vanavan Mateviyalvar.
    Location (confirmation) - Tiers on the east wall on the entrance to mukamandapa.
    Publication - Unpublished , ARE 321 of 1965

    (22) King/Date - Kulottunka - 3, Year - 9 (1187 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - beggining lines lost and incomplete. Commences with puyal vayttu. Seems to record gift of 482 kalanchu by Tuntanatutaiyan Ekavaccakan kulottunkar, son of Candramauliyavar for some purpose in the name of latter, who appears to bear some relationship to Sungantavirttarulina Kulottunkacola.
    Location (confirmation) - Tiers on the east wall on the entrance to mukamandapa.
    Publication - Unpublished , ARE 322 of 1965

    (23) King/Date - ------------------------
    Dynasty - characters of eleventh century [Chola]
    Details - fragmentary . one of the fragments refers to an undertaking given by an individual after receiving five kacu, and another mentions Mkulam utaiyan and Tiruccirrampalam Utaiyan, and a third to a land not fit for ultivation of paddy.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragments built into the padma forming the base of the same platform of the mahamandapa[/u]
    Publication - Unpublished. ARE 316 of 1965

    (24) King/Date - ------------------------
    Dynasty - characters of thirteenth century [Chola]
    Details - Fragmentary. mentions on Tittai Pitaran
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the padma forming the base of the same platform of the mukamandapaLocated
    Publication - ARE 317 of 1965

    (25) King/Date - Tribhuvanacaravartin Konerimai-kondan, - ---------
    Dynasty - ---(Pandya ?)
    Details - Registers order of king relating to emoluments of a temple servent.
    Location (confirmation) - On the south wall of the mukamandapa; photos 0012-0014 Located
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 33 of 1908

    (26) King/Date - -------------- Saka
    Dynasty - -------
    Details - Fragmentary. Refers to a Gangavilandarapuravaradhisvaran. In late characters.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the base of the left platform of the muhamandapa of the main shrine.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 314 of 1965

    Inscriptions on the Nandi Statue

    (27) King/Date - ----------- , ------ - (----- AD)
    Dynasty - --------
    Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record grant for a Sandhi lamp.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the platform of the Nandhi. Located
    Publication - Unpublished. ARE 318 of 1965.

    Inscriptions on the Durga Shrine

    (28) King/Date - --------- , ------ (------ AD) (In my view on a close study of the three Inscription Nos: 13, 28 and 29 put together it is noted that this Inscription belongs to the period of Adirajendra).
    Dynasty - Charactors of the eleventh century, Chola
    Details - Fragmentary. Seems to be parts of a record registering gifts of gold by persons including female servents (anukkiyar and pentatti) of the Tirumancanattar velam. Also refers to "Tribhuvanamatevip Perunkati"
    Location (confirmation) - Fragments built into the right side doorjamb of the entrance to the Durga shrine.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 325 of 1965


    (Inscriptions on the) Executive Office

    (29) King/Date - ---------------------
    Dynasty - [Chola]
    Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record a gift by Marutan Civakkoluntu (a pentatti). Also refers to two merchantsof the perankati, Kuttan Adivitankan who was charged to contribute interest out of the gift and Tutuvan...who stood as suretyfor the former.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the baseof the wall of the office of Executive officer of the temple.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 326 of 1965

    (30) King/Date - ----------
    Dynasty - characters of the twelfth century [Chola]
    Details - Records that the pillar was donated tapillai-puttanayakan the kilan of Palaiyaru. In charactors of the 12th century.
    Location (confirmation) - On a stray pillar near the Executive office of the temple.
    Publication - ARE 327 of 1965

    (31) King/Date - Kulottunka - 3, Year - 14 (1192 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record gift of 120 anratu-narkacu to the temple of Civannanisvaramudaiyar by Thiruvaiyaru-utaiyan
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the wall of between the houses of the Executive officer and temple priest.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 330 of 1965

    Inscriptions on the Gopuram

    (32) King/Date - [Kulottunka - 1], Year - -----
    Dynasty - characters of the twelfth-thirteenth century. Chola
    Details - Fragmentary. Records that the palakaipatai probably for Kuttatuntevar (Siva as Dancer) in the temple was caused to be made by Sembikulamanikkattar, an anukkiyar (close female attendent) of the king.
    Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the side wall of the entrance of the gopuram of the temple,
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 328 of 1965.

    (33) King/Date - ------------
    Dynasty - [Chola]
    Details - Fragmentary. lists various gifts like a lamp, two cows fir it's maintainenceand gold for some ornaments.
    Location (confirmation) - Another in the sidewall of the entrance of the gopuram of the temple.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 329 of 1965


    (Inscriptions on) Other Fragments

    (34) King/Date - Vikkrama Chola, Year - 3 (1121 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragment. Damaged and complete. Refers to the sluice of the lake in Gangaikkondacholapuram of Kidarangondacholavalanadu.
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stone pieces kept inthe temple precincts.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 524 of 1994

    (35) King/Date - Vikkrama Chola, Year - 6 (1124 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragment. Damaged and incomplete. Refers to the gift of money 9narkacu0 by a lady, one Tribhuvanamudaiyal with the interest amount of a sandhi lamp was to be maintaiined by temple authorities.
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stones pieces kept in the temple premises.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 525 of 1994.

    (36) King/Date - Vikkrama Chola, Year - 9 (1127 AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragment. Damaged and incomplete. Refers to the accession of land and mentions puppadai of Gangaikondacholapuram of Kidarangondacholavalanadu.
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stone pieces keptin the temple precincts.
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 526 of 1994.

    (37) King/Date - Rajadhiraja - 2, Year - 27 (------ AD)
    Dynasty - Chola
    Details - Fragment. Damaged and incomplete. Contains portions of the prasasti of the king and records the gift of two perpetual lamps [regnal year is too high]
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stone pieces kept in the temple precincts.
    Publication - ARE 527 of 1994

    (38) King/Date - ----------
    Dynasty - ----------
    Details - Fragment. Damaged and incomplete. Records donation of a doorframe 9thirunilaikkal0 by one madhava-chetti and his wife 9akampatiyal). In characters of the 12th century.
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stone pieces kept in the temple precincts.
    Publication - Unpublished. ARE 527 of 1994

    (39) King/Date - -------------
    Dynasty - -------------
    Details - Fragment. Badly damaged. Purport not clear.
    Location (confirmation) - On loose stone pieces kept in the temple precints
    Publication - Unpublished ARE 539 0f 1994


    Further there are also some Inscriptions visible even today at the Lower Anicut (Dam) built across Kollidam River, as the British Engineer Arthur Cotton who built same in A.D.1836 used many dismantled granite stones from the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple and it's other Structures. These visible Tamil Inscriptions on the Stones and Carved Pillars used to build these Dam Walls should be transcribed and documented long before they are lost to us forever - by enthusiastic young Epigraphists of Tamil Nadu - from the Low Anicut (Dam) over Kollidam.
    .

    The Tamil Thevara Pathikams sung on Gangaikonda Choleswarer by Karuvur Thevar

    The Saivite Sage "Karuvur Thevar" of the period of Rajaraja Cholan - 1 and Rajendra Cholan - 1 has sung 'Thiruvisaippaa' (Hyms) on these two great Siva Temples, which have now been included in the nineth Thirumurai of the twelve - Tamil Saiva Thirumuraikal.

    கங்கைகொண்ட சோளேச்சரம்

    அன்னமாய் விசும்பு பறந்தயன் தேட
    அங்ஙனே பெரியநீ சிறிய
    என்னையாள் விரும்பி என்மனம் புகுந்த
    எளிமையை என்றும்நான் மறக்கேன்
    முன்னம்மால் அறியா ஒருவனாம் இருவா
    முக்கணா நாற்பெருந் தடந்தோள்
    கன்னலே தேனே அமுதமே கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 1

    உண்ணெகிழ்ந்(து) உடலம் நெக்குமுக் கண்ணா !
    ஓலமென்(று) ஓலமிட்(டு) ஒருநாள்
    மண்ணினின்று அலறேன் வழிமொழி மாலை
    மழலையஞ் சிலம்படி முடிமேல்
    பண்ணிநின்(று) உருகேன் பணிசெயேன் எனினும்
    பாவியேன் ஆவியுள் புகுந்தென்
    கண்ணினின்று அகலான் என்கொலோ கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 2

    அற்புதத்தெய்வம் இதனின்மற் றுண்டே
    அன்பொடு தன்னைஅஞ் செழுத்தின்
    சொற்பதத் துள்வைத்(து) உள்ளம்அள் ளூறும்
    தொண்டருக்(கு) எண்டிசைக் கனகம்
    பற்பதக் குவையும் பைம்பொன்மா ளிகையும்
    பவளவா யவர்பணை முலையும்
    கற்பகப் பொழிலும் முழுதுமாம் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 3

    ஐயபொட் டிட்ட அழகுவாள் நுதலும்
    அழகிய விழியும்வெண்ணீறும்
    சைவம்விட் டிட்ட சடைகளும் சடைமேல்
    தரங்கமும் சதங்கையும் சிலம்பும்
    மொய்கொள்எண் திக்கும் கண்டநின் தொண்டர்
    முகமலர்ந்து இருகணீர் அரும்பக்
    கைகள்மொட் டிக்கும் என்கொலோ கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 4

    கருதிவா னவனாம் திருநெடு மாலாம்
    சுந்தர விசும்பின்இந் திரனாம்
    பருதிவா னவனாம் படர்சடை முக்கண்
    பகவனாம் அகஉயிர்க்கு அமுதாம்
    எருதுவா கனனாம் எயில்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
    ஏறுசே வகனுமாம் பின்னும்
    கருதுவார் கருதும் உருவமாம் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 5

    அண்டமோர் அணுவாம் பெருமைகொண்(டு) அணுவோர்
    அண்டமாம் சிறுமைகொண்(டு) அடியேன்
    உண்டவூண் உனக்காம் வகைஎன துள்ளம்
    உள்கலந்(து) ஏழுபரஞ் சோதி
    கொண்டநாண் பாம்பாம் பெருவரை வில்லில்
    குறுகலர் புரங்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
    கண்டனே ! நீல கண்டனே ! கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 6

    மோதலைப் பட்ட கடல்வயி(று) உதித்த
    முழுமணித் திரள்அமு(து) ஆங்கே
    தாய்தலைப் பட்டங்(கு) உருகிஒன் றாய
    தன்மையில் என்னைமுன் ஈன்ற
    நீதலைப் பட்டால் யானும் அவ்வகையே
    நிசிசரர் இருவரோடு ஒருவர்
    காதலிற் பட்ட கருணையாய் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 7

    தத்தையங் கனையார் தங்கள்மேல் வைத்த
    தயாவைநூ றாயிரங் கூறிட்(டு)
    அத்திலங்(கு) ஒருகூ(று) உன்கண்வைத் தவருக்(கு)
    அமலரு(கு) அளிக்கும்நின் பெருமை
    பித்தனென்(று) ஒருகால் பேசுவ ரேனும்
    பிழைத்தவை பொறுத்தருள் செய்யும்
    கைத்தலம் அடியேன் சென்னிவைத்த கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 8

    பண்ணிய தழல்காய் பாலளா நீர்போல்
    பாவமுன் பறைந்துபா லனைய
    புண்ணியம் பின்சென்(று) அறிவினுக்(கு) அறியப்
    புகுந்ததோர் யோகினில் பொலிந்து
    நுண்ணியை எனினும் நம்பநின் பெருமை
    நுன்னிடை ஒடுங்கநீ வந்தென்
    கண்ணினுள் மணியிற் கலந்தனை கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 9

    அங்கைகொண்(டு) அமரர் மலர்மழை பொழிய
    அடிச்சிலம்பு அலம்பவந்(து) ஒருநாள்
    உங்கைகொண் டடியேன் சென்னிவைத் தென்னை
    உய்யக்கொண் டருளினை மருங்கில்
    கொங்கைகொண்(டு) அனுங்கும் கொடியிடை காணில்
    கொடியள்என்(று) அவிர்சடை முடிமேல்
    கங்கைகொண் டிருந்த கடவுளே ! கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 10

    மங்கையோ டிருந்த யோகுசெய் வானை
    வளர்இளந் திங்களை முடிமேல்
    கங்கையோ(டு) அணியும் கடவுளைக் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானை
    அங்கையோ டேந்திப் பலிதிரி கருவூர்
    அறைந்தசொல் மாலையால் ஆழிச்
    செங்கையோ(டு) உலகில் அரசுவீற் றிருந்து
    திளைப்பதும் சிவனருட் கடலே. 11


    Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during Muslim Invasion of Tamil Nadu

    Under the rule of the Mugal Emperor of Delhi namely Aurangazib, his 'Military General; Allaudin Kilji invaded South India and Tamil Nadu around A.D.1310. In Tamil Nadu he raided and pillaged the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple a masterpiece of "Tamilian Architecture" and carried away all it's wealth.

    Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during French Invasion of Tamil Nadu

    In the year A.D.1756 the French forces who gained grounds in Tamil Nadu around Pondichery invaded the Udayar Palayam and sucessfully captured that region to themselves.

    Nine years later in A.D.1765 the Nawab of Arcot invaded Udaiyaarpaalaiyam with the help of English Forces - who too have gained grounds at St George Fort region over French. During these two wars the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple which served as their bastions suffered much damage. However in the year A.D.1817 this temple and the region of Udaiyaar Paalaiyam was restored back to it's legitimate Ruler the Chieftain Kaalaatkal Chola Udaiyaar, who agreed to pay tributes to the English.


    Last edited by virarajendra; 17th August 2017 at 11:27 PM.

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    "Barathanatyam" performance by a Dancer with 'Gangaikonda Choliswarer Temple" as the background (in the Tamil Film "Neengal Kettavai" released in early 1980's)

    (Courtesy: Great Music Director "Ilayarajah" and SEPL)


    Last edited by virarajendra; 17th August 2017 at 10:11 PM.

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    Last edited by virarajendra; 22nd July 2017 at 04:48 PM.

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    Last edited by virarajendra; 17th August 2017 at 09:57 PM.

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    Last edited by virarajendra; 23rd July 2017 at 11:03 PM.

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