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Thread: "Super Star" Rajinikanth in & as "கபாலி" - Ranjith**Santhosh Narayan**

  1. #21
    Senior Member Senior Hubber mexicomeat's Avatar
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    birth date: 12/12/1956 (as per the image above - rajni's birth date is dec 12, 1950 in real life)

    since his age is shown in the image as 60, this means kabali is released in 2016.

    also confirmed by the dialogue "25 varuzhathukku munnadi...." as 2016 - 1991 (date of arrest) is 25.

    only thing that does not tally is the "happy new year 2016" visual shown in the mayanadhi song.
    இலக்கியத்தில் நான் வண்ண தமிழ் மழலைக்கு பாலூட்டும் தாய்
    சினிமாவில் விட்டெரியும் காசுக்கு வாலாட்டும் நாய்

    -Vaali

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  3. #22
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
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    'Dalam Kementerian Negeri', the Ministry of Home Affairs (security) of Malaysia.
    Should be Kementerian Dalam Negeri (KDN)

    'Jabalam Penjara Malaysia', the Malaysian Prison Department.
    Jabatan

    Historically, there are a lot of inaccuracies, but is pardonable because of cinematic license (and it will show current government in bad light.)
    But the omission of MIC (Malaysian Indian Congress), a senior member of the current govt, is gross injustice.

    They are the primary reason for the grave state of Tamils in Malaysia.
    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

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    Quote Originally Posted by mexicomeat View Post
    birth date: 12/12/1956 (as per the image above - rajni's birth date is dec 12, 1950 in real life)

    since his age is shown in the image as 60, this means kabali is released in 2016.

    also confirmed by the dialogue "25 varuzhathukku munnadi...." as 2016 - 1991 (date of arrest) is 25.

    only thing that does not tally is the "happy new year 2016" visual shown in the mayanadhi song.
    My theory:

    The actual date of release was never mentioned, neither anything pointing as 'present day' has been marked.

    Arrest Date : 28/08/1991
    25 years later, it will be 28/08/2015

    After the release in the 3rd quarter of 2015, Kabali finds his family in the final quater of the same year and the new year 2016 blossoms with happiness.
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    Quote Originally Posted by NOV View Post
    Jabatan
    Thanks Nov, for pointing it out. I have corrected it.
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  6. Likes NOV liked this post
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure



    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 2 - Visual Story Telling

    An important element of a cohesive story told through a visual content is the concept of archetypes. It encourages a deep relationship with viewers. Archetypes are original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are its representations or copies, more likely a prototype. According to Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a Swiss psychiatrist who had coined the word, archetypes are 'pieces of life itself' which are inherited idea or mode of thoughts unconscious inside (Ref. Section 4.2 - Character Psychology).

    There are seven basic archetypes in Visual Story Telling, which allows the audience to relate to the backstory, tapping their desires and allowing them to hug with emotions:

    Rags to Riches - A pauper, then, becomes a prince. It is a dream and forced to come through and become true inside a story world.

    Overcoming a Monster - The main character confronts an evil larger than himself. It portrays the courage and strength of the hero which is the prime motive of the story, else there would be nothing to say inside the story.

    The Quest - The quest is the progression of the protagonist who stumbles across several obstacles/challenges and how he overcomes them during the progress of the story.

    Comedy - A complicated one for those who think comedy is humour. To put it simple, all humour is a comedy, but not all comedies are humour. A comedy is loaded with known factors, mostly the audience favourites, to which the viewer can easily adapt to. It can be humour or a plain drama of a 'boy next door" where the watcher travels with the character as a friendly shadow beside. The state of the character in the story will not suffer, but undergo light variations those which are not extreme.

    Tragedy - Moral weakness, confusion, bewilderment, darkness and deep suffering.

    Voyage and Return - An escape metaphor. There is a modification in the sequencing of scenes (Ref. Section 4.3 - Structure), which provokes an interest to see how the main character walks his path and returns over the same path. Mostly the path is righteousness, and for anti-hero types its the other way round.

    Rebirth - It is basically the threats. These threats gets larger and larger imprisoning the affected and creates an illusion of 'all is lost'. Then comes the redemption, the main character rises. We can observe such phenomena in dual roles or dual-faced heroes.



    Kabali has all the seven archetypes within, which are shown and not spelt out. Its major archetype is 'Voyage and Return' where 'The Quest' is explored under the backdrop of 'Rags to Riches' using the 'Comedy' showcasing the reunion of a family which was initially in the pits of 'Tragedy' as the protagonist fails to 'Overcoming a Monster', but finally takes a 'Rebirth'.

    Today, the modern medium, the movies, are not stories told verbally but they bring characters to life on a big screen by creating an engaging experience for the audience, where the characterisation is the source of inspiration while creating such engaging communication.

    Section 2.2 - Characters

    Keywords: character types, communication, archetype, dialect, tone, development.

    There is a misconception that a movie runs by its plot. Basically it is the characters which take forward the movie, and not the plot. The main motive is to build a formal plot structure either with a proper beginning, middle and an end, or an informal plot structure where there is no plot at all (Ref. Section 4.1 - Story Arc). Either way, its the characters that moves the story along, as it can create its own plot inside the story world.

    The characters deal with two components - outer behaviour and inner thoughts. As and when applied by them, it automatically implies with the audience (Ref. Section 4.2 - Character Psychology).

    Following types of characters are usually found in a motion picture:

    Type | description | Selected Character in the movie Kabali

    Central character: Development of the story / Resolution of the conflict => Kumudhavalli

    Minor characters: Helps to advance the events forward => Anbu

    Dynamic characters: Changes over time / Faces a major crisis / Revolve around the main character => Yogi

    Static character: Non transformable / Unevolved => Ameer

    Round: Complex personality / Contradictory => Marthandam

    Flat: Opposite of a round character / one kind of personality trait or characteristics => Tamizh Nesan

    Stock: Conventional or Stereotypical / Repeated => Cheeni

    Protagonist: Central / Main / faces with a conflict / Resolves => Kabali

    Antagonist: Obstacle / Conflict with Protagonist / (sometimes Suituational) => Tony Lee

    Anti-Hero: Main character / lacks conventional nobility of mind / struggles for values => Kabali (even though the character is anti-social, it shall find its place here as there is not type called 'anti-social')

    Foil: Contrast with the protagonist / Gets more space and time than other characters => Veerasekaran

    Symbolic: Central or minor character / Represents a major idea or aspect => Meena

    These types can be formed inside two group (Ref Section 3 - Dialogues):

    Dialect Characters, who speak dialogues => almost every character

    Non-Dialect Characters, who don't utter a word => Jeeva

    Over the time, the character types bridge together the two main pillars of characterisation - character's complexity and character's development.

    Pa. Rajinth has not only gathered almost all types of character in Kabali, shaping them to be associated with his protagonist of the story, he had named them as titles for his movie title Kabali. These characters circle around Kabali as an honorific address:



    There are two names that collide with reality. Rani, as in Queen, offers her son Jeeva, as the prince to the childless Kabali. These names point to the attachment of Jeeva with Kabali and the importance of the character itself without spelling any detail in the presentation with dialogues. Their relationship is hinted then and there - Jeeva will be the successor to Kabali and he sits right behind his father figure, and not anywhere else, inside the car.

    Many mistake the word 'tone' for the colour or motif of the images and they tend to describe the visuals as movie tone. Actually tone has nothing to do with the image, its basically the attitude of the movie - whether it is comic in tone or serious. The tone is a symbolism that contributes greatly to a viewers to inherit themselves in the film. A character, main or minor, with a proper tone will communicate largely with the audience. They cry along with them, they laugh along with them and more often they will feel their absence. The tone can give such an impact working below surface when the character is actually playing on the screen.

    One important scene in the movie is when Kabali hears his wife after twenty five years. Yes, you read it right, Kabali HEARS her behind the open door and he turns to that direction.


    (Kabali waiting for Kumudhavalli in the salon of Auroville)

    A ripple of flute indicate her arrival (Section 2.5 - Background Score (Silence)).


    (Kabali looks towrds the noise (beyond the doorway))

    This particular moment and the way it is presented sends a sensation of ants crawling all over the neck, the perfect way to trigger an emotion inside the viewer using an archetype, making the classic character even more powerful. The scene continues with the camera rolling towards the audience aligning with the vision of Kabali, making the viewer the one who had taken the peep (Ref. Section 2.9 - Camera).

    There is an isolated lighthouse, a decorative object beside Kabali portraying his solitude. An unlit lamp with a floral doom hangs above his head indicating his lightless life. Many gift wrapped objects with flying balloons are placed behind Kumudhavalli showing the prize for Kabali's patience. Kabali approaches Kumudhavalli who shines as a star hung over the door that crowns her head. When Kabali introduces Yogi, the background involves a flower bouquet and there are two star hanging above while Yogi hugs Kumudhakavalli. The reunited family, their blurred image, is flashed on the mirror on the opposite wall painting it with the joy of tears. (Ref. Section 2.7 - Objects).

    The following scenes are an extension, but Kabali's agony ends within that simple look of recognition showing clearly all the drops of memory is indeed the echoes of Kumudhavalli's presence, held safe inside by him for twenty five years.

    Kabali is in a serious tone.
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure



    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 4 - Dramatic Structure

    Keywords: script, screenplay, scene, structure, acts, time, order, narrative

    Section 4.4 - Acts

    A story written for visual experience, is then produced to be filmed with 'Three-Act-Structure" (Ref: Section 1 - Introduction).

    "In the first act, it’s who are the people and what is the situation of this whole story. The second act is the progression of that situation to a high point of conflict and great problems. And the third act is how the conflicts and problems are resolved."
    - Screenwriter Ernest Paul Lehman (1915–2005).

    The Structure of Scenes

    In Kabali, the full length screenplay for the feature-length movie follows the standard rules in screen writing but the director presents it in a more creative way. The bulk of the screenplay simply identifies the hero struggling against difficulties in order to reach a final goal, the original intention of the story on which the story world is created.

    A scene is a brick with which the screenplay constructs a solid structure by setting up where the situation happens, at what time (of the day/hour) and what actually happens. Each scene described in the screenplay of Kabali has its own purpose. Kabali is made restless by either pushing him closer or farther from his goal and the screenplay illustrates his situation that deepens the audience's understanding. This trait is important as if the viewer is lost and does not follow the proceedings, the film becomes just a random moving images making noise that does not connect with the watcher.

    I don't have the textual Kabali before me, but while watching the film, Kabali can be easily translated into a written format that clearly states that removing a scene, the missing brick, will put a hole on the wall. Even though I could not explore much then when I watched the film for the first time, with thousands of fans trapped inside the magic of Rajini, I sensed that the scene structure did not exploit the story structure. Then, I came to know (thanks to A2A) that several scenes were trimmed or removed to shut the film inside a prescribed time can. This anomaly is not provoked by editing the raw footage, but it lies within the screenplay itself.

    Time and Order in Screenplay

    A script is a general term with a very large meaning, which is widely used by almost everyone talking about a film work. The script is any narrative text be it a story for novels or the written format of a moving picture. Television episodes, games and few many times, documentaries are based on scripts. Thus, a script is a global word and does not pertain only to movies. A script for novels is addressed as manuscript; for a television episode is called teleplay and for movies it’s called a screenplay.

    The screenplay of the movie is addressed as a script, which is mostly written by a screenwriter, until the director places his notes and give few of his touch-up guidelines. From this point, the script written for the movie becomes a screenplay, even though there is a tendency to address it as Production Script. Theory and practise may differ, that does not mean that there isn't any difference between these two words. Screenplay will be addressed as screenplay and a script as script in this chapter.

    A script neither follows the chronology of events nor indicates in which sequence the scenes are to be filmed during production. The prose form of the film is not bound to a time continuum, meaning it does not make use of the time structures.

    A screenplay is the duration of the story world events narrated in the text, and it is always linear and it moves forward in only one direction. Theoretically, in a screenplay there is a relationship between page numbers and screen time that is keenly respected in a film production, meaning the story time is primarily tracked by the screenplay and not by editing. Editor assembles the raw footage and cuts its length with few techniques respecting the time organised by the screenplay. People tend to mistake this basic difference and call for the editor to align the movie within a runtime which is possible but destroys the story structure, as visible in the film Kabali.

    In Kabali, the linear ordering in script is disrupted within the screenplay. It efficiently uses the methods of anachronology, discrepancy between the chronological order of events and the order in which they are related in a plot. As the movie is about the voyage of Kabali, the script brings in the needed changes in his life and the screenplay converts it into the primary path inside the story world. The sequences (Ref. Sections 5.2 - Sequences) are jumbled to randomise the events, making it more interesting to follow the actions of the protagonist Kabali (Ref. Section 2.2 - Characters).

    The linear ordering can be disrupted in any number of ways. The three primary methods that communicate well with the audience are:

    1/ A flashback is the past story world event inserted between two events of the narrative present.

    2/ A flash-forward in the future event inserted in the narrative present.

    3/ Jumbled Sequencing is rearranging the original sequence cracking into much smaller bits from the initial building blocks of a script.

    Pa. Ranjith randomizes his presentation of Kabali by jumbling the sequences of his story, where events effortlessly move from flashbacks and flash-forward creating an illusion of suspense. Moreover he dictated them artistically with the camera angles (Ref. Section 2.9 - Camera) totally covering the actions and emotions of the characters involved within the events to which the audience can relate to. The scenes are structured in such a way to extract a reaction from the viewers.

    Just like the ACTS in the dramatic sturcture, a screenplay is divided into three parts: The start of the story timeline is called 'Ab Ovo' (from the egg). The middle of the story timeline is known as 'In Media Res' (into the middle). Those that begin at the end of the story timeline are identified as 'In Ultimas Res' (into the end).

    Kabali narrative produces the divided screenplay elegantly:

    Ab Ovo plays with the characters and potrays the two different timeline they walkthrough. Each presented character in Ab Ovo vary with a drastic change in their appearance.


    (Ab Ovo - Kabali starts his new journey after 25 years in prison to explore the new world formed by the absence of his family)

    Ab Ovo gives way to Media Res when Kabali gets a hint about his daughter. Media Res begins with Kabali finding his daughter, which then allows him to head the search for his wife and it ends when he finds her.


    (Media Res - Kabali starts wondering how his daughter would have grown-up to if she was sitting before him)

    Ultimas Res starts as soon as he returns to Malaysia and finds that Tony Lee has shattered his Empire.


    (Ultimas Res - Kabali learns about Tony Lee's attack which puts his friend Ameer in the hospital)

    The three divisions are highlighted with similar shots, medium close up, (Ref. Section 2.9 - Camera), where Kabali looks to his right. The eyes position is similar but their is a variation given between the lips as well as the size of the eye, to track the different emotions that represent the three motives of the screenplay respectively - A smile of relief below the eyes covered with blue-dark shades representing the agonised eyes through which Kabali will meet the new world, a mild laughter showing the teeth to sparkle an inner joy and finally an oval mouth that could not conseal the shock.

    Ultimas Res leads to the climax.


    (Climax - Kabali challenges Tony Tee face-to-face)

    These three parts must indicate the global duration by punctuating the runtime of each scene before film production. Random footages are then merged to form a continuity through editing techniques which will slim the film down under the time value represented in the screenplay.
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure


    (A miniature Buddhist warrior statue of the Chinese warrior found at the entrance of the oldest Buddhist temple complex Wat Pho in the Rattanakosin island district of Bangkok, Thailand. Sometimes addressed as the "Weeping Buddha" or "Weeping Warrior", it symbolises the myth of two legendary warriors who confronted each other in numerous battles with neither winning over each other. After many such battles where both skilled warriors failed to best the other, one finally prevailed.)

    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 2 - Visual Story Telling

    Keywords: symbols, metaphors, mise en scene, angle, focus, frame, decors

    Section 2.7 – Objects

    "A metaphor is not language, it is an idea expressed by language, an idea that in its turn functions as a symbol to express something." – Susanne Langer (1895 - 1985)

    In Kabali, a Buddhist Warrior miniature statue is used to open the climax - Confrontation.

    This object is presented by Kabali to Yang Lee during the roof top party. The myth of Weeping Warrior states that the two legendary warriors fought wearing masks and the older one killed the younger. The vainqueur weeps over his victory as he had killed his own son who was the other masked warrior. Kabali's presents the statue to Yang Lee as he is about to kill his son Tony Lee, making the father the Weeping Buddha.

    We cross several streets daily and at least once face a statue of a man sitting on a horse back at an intersection. These are not just statues of men riding their horses, they are symbols related to the rider, illustrating an important event in his life - the death. A horse statue with forelegs (front legs) raised in the air signifies the rider was killed in battle and with only one leg raised indicates that the rider was injured in the battle (maybe he died later due to the injury or a reason unrelated to war). With all its four legs grounded, it represents that the rider died due to any reason and not at the battlefield.

    Thus, an object, be it a statue or just a piece of stone, has its own life, pronouncing an immense meaning to the visual narrative. An example from an image posted before "Kabali_Exploring the Dramatic Structure 4.jpg" - There are decorative objects placed in the background which are standing in pairs, while Kabali is sitting alone beside an empty chair, thinking about his wife Kumudhavalli. A sadness provoked visually with a strong appeal of emotion without grinding too much of melodrama.

    "Kabali_Katham2.jpg", where Kabali meets Tony Lee face-to-face, a rearing horse statue (a horse standing up on its hind legs with the forelegs off the ground) governs the backdrop punctuating a conflict. A horse takes such stance when it is in conflict with the command from the rider leading itself to rear out of control and throwing its rider to the ground. The discourse of Kabali states the command of a particular community over the other, and himself from the minority objects it severely and raises against the salvery by throwing the illtreating majority to the ground.

    Mise en scene

    Mise en scene is often related or confused to a screenplay; both conceptions are wrong. Mise en scene refers to all the objects and characters in a particular frame (Ref. Section 4.3 - Structure). It is basically the composition of the frame (Ref. Section 2.1 - Frames & Shots) and nothing to do with textual script & screenplay, even though it is based on them. The director designs his scene written by the screenwriter that is found in the script which he converts to a screenplay. The central document, the screenplay, is reworked and the words are converted into real space during a mise en scene which is the primary setting of a motion picture. He, then, works with the art department to build sets and decorate them with his thoughts that are in line with the scene to be registered.

    A classic example of mise en scene from movie Kabali (the image is self-explanatory which absolutely covers anything and everything around a ship graveyard), where the art director Thangavel Ramalingam collaborates with director/screenwriter Pa. Ranjith to produce an authentic environment for the camera man G. Murali to capture the essential that is put on display by the editor K.L. Praveen:


    (Kabali meets Loga at his den)

    Not only with objects, Kabali’s mise en scene extends its representations through sound too. The Pet Shop sequence is the best highlight for sound design (Ref. Section 2.6 - Sounds) done by Ruban, where the animal sounds are used to punctuate the actions of the characters. It also involves the music composer Santosh Narayanan's back ground score motivating the hyper energetic sequence, effortlessly mingling it with the sounds heard inside a pet shop.

    When Kabali enters, we hear a horse neigh, and see Cheeni seated below a cage holding a sheep. While Cheeni and gang watch the arrival of Kabali, on their right above their head there is an image of a black panther walking towards the audience. When Cheeni starts to talk, we hear a dog barking in the backdrop. Ameer’s discourse is covered by bird chirpings, and when Cheeni starts off again repeating his sheepish smile which he had kept from the beginning, is highlighted by a squawking of a parrot. Whistle theme enlarges the calmness of Kabali, and when he raises his hand from the back of the sofa we hear a sheep bleating as though its head is going to be separated. There is a mechanical sound relating to the neck turn movement of the character Jeeva, who later wanders in the movie like a mechanical man. The dual, as in a cowboy film, where Kabali and Cheeni exchange glances, the passing time is highlighted by the dripping of water sound. When Kabali pulls the rod from inside his coat cuff, two swans in the backdrop symbolises the wait for the fish and then, Kabali goes fishing. During the action block, when the goons are thrown down by Kabali, we hear desperate screams of various animals locked and suffering inside their cage. When Kabali crushes him under his foot over the glass tea table, there is a statue of a lion hunting a deer, where the prey seems to roll desperately under clawed foot of the predator. And when Kabali jumps back to the ground, it is punctuated with his entry sound, the neigh of the horse. The breath taking sequence is then closed with the fabulous Kabali discourse (Ref. Section 3 - Dialogues). All the animal sounds heard during this sequence, the respective animals are at least shown once inside a random frame. A wheel is placed at the far end denoting the current time space of the event - the past meeting the present.

    Positivity is brought out in Kabali, at almost every shot assembled through the mise en scene, even if it demonstrates an act of tragedy or violence. Ameer is wounded and is resting at the hosiptal. He is laid over a bed of flowers, where the pillow covers and the spreads are floral in design.


    (Kabali's friend wounded by the hit from Tony Lee's gang)

    An indoor restaurant scene from Kabali, ordered with a complete setup :


    (Kabali dinning with his associates)

    Similar restaurant scenes with different decors flash during several instances of the story flow pointing the audience to various places, incidents and events inside the story world - a candid shot of gangs escaping a resturant during introduction, a nightclub, the Kabali Shootout, Yang Lee's reunion and finally the climax roof top birthday party. Each sequence is decorated differently and are set with pleasing colours (Ref. Section 2.3 - Language of Colours) that indicate the suituation as well as falls attractive before the audience who are watching the wide screen.

    Mise en scene also includes the placement and movement of characters inside the frame. Sometime, the script does not share such details and more often the screenplay does not include it either. It’s more of a real-time action of the director where he structures a scene to portray an event of the story (both in time and order) which certainly need not be present textually. He collaborates with the cameraman and more often discusses with the editor before capturing the raw footage inside the negative of the film roll (Note: I don't like digital, thus, I stick to my favourite medium, the fabulous film rolls).

    The shot capturing Kabali Family at Yang Lee Roof Top party, testifies for the mise en scene, where the characters are made to use their eyes to communicate with each other (as well as with the audience - Rosyam Nor looks directly at the viewer; there are several shots where a character looks straight at the audience or performs a gesture sending a signal directly to the viewer) :


    (Kabali & Family at Yang Lee Birthday Party)

    Pa. Ranjith had made sure in his mise en scene that a communication, either gestual or symbolic or through eye contact, with the audience always prevails.
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure



    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 2 - Visual Story Telling

    Keywords: key light, rim light, catch light, fill light, lighting setup, outdoor, indoor, reflectors, flags...

    Section 2.8 - Lighting

    A visually impaired lady asks the man, whom she has never seen, to be her eyes to explore the world. Touched by her request, the man describes to the mindful lady about colours. He explains to her that colours are not merely quality of light but actually they are the variable thoughts provoked by an immense feeling that cheers the mind. He introduces colour to the visionless lady stating that any swiftly passing thought provoked by a physical and natural touch paint the mind with different colours respectively. He sets few examples by opening his poem: தென்றல் வந்து தீண்டும் போது என்ன வண்ணமோ மனசுல (Thendral Vandhu Theendum Bodhu Yenna Vannamo Manasule). And declares it to be the original form of a true colour.

    [Note: Greatest Poet who touched the face of Earth – The Poet (my) Vaali]

    Kabali is looking for his missing family members. His obedient staffs hook all the corners of the city and map a path to search for them. Kabali meets a contact who could have potential information of the person who could have seen one of his family member lastly. He is sitting in a night club listening to the speaking man. His attention is disrupted by a vocal:



    ஓட நீர் ஓட, இந்த உலகம் அது போல; (Oda Neer Oda, Indha Ulagam Adhu Pola; )
    ஓடும் அது ஓடும், இந்த காலம் அது போல; (Odum Adhu Odum, Indha Kalam Adhu poola; )
    நிலையா நில்லாது, நினைவில் வரும் நிறங்களே. (Nilaiya Niladha, Ninaivil Varum Nerangalae.)

    These particular lines from the 'Song for Colour' sung by the man to his blind lady talks about the journey of a river comparing it with the flow of time. The lyrical punctuate the endless journey in the time space, where the memories are the fabulous colours.

    The usage of these particular lines in Kabali, is to indicate the time and memory, which are the axel spinning the voyage of Kabali inside the story world.

    The light from the quality song flashes on Kabali’s face, reflecting the memories of his wife. The emission on his face reflect the colours that fill his heart.



    The structure of the scene (Ref. Section 4.3 - Structure) is based on only one action - Listening. Kabali listens to the speaking man, and then listens to the song. Two thought process struggle with each other inside him - Will the information lead him to his goal? - Versus - Memories of his wife!

    The variation is brought by a simple neck movement, shrink of eyes, mild hand gesture and particularly, the change of light colour on his face that indicates the swift in his thoughts.

    Indication of Colours (Ref. Section 2.3 - Language of Colours) - A white light punctuates the complete attention shown by Kabali to the speaker. It turns to red producing an eruption of energy within Kabali when he hears the song that flushes colours of memories inside him. Just before the images of Kumudhavalli flash, Kabali face turns pale promoting the purity of love he still has for his wife, as well as, indicating that the following images are flash-back events inserted in the narrative present. The similar white light from the start of the scene stays during the close up on Kabali, but this time points a different thought than the initial. The colours also punctuate the softness and harshness of the character Kabali seen inside the frame.

    The lighting setup at the night club scene is done with a Key Light, positioned to the left of the subject, brightening the subject constantly. A Fill Light, the soft frontal lights positioned to the right of the subject, is used to produce the change in colour inside a Backlight, the strong steady white light source coming from the background positioned behind to the left of the subject. The image of Kabali (a medium close-up), is positioned between the area of darkness - created by the Backlight and illuminated by the Fill Light, while constantly glowing under the Key Light.

    Such assembly of the light sources is known as Three Point Lighting Setup. The dimness created by using them is to produce the needed mood inside the shot (ref. Frames & Shots). The Key Light is turned low to limit its effect and produce a shadowy and mysteries environment to project the unknown answers Kabali is seeking.

    The director and the cameraman play with the light source around the subject to bring the needed ambience and create an illusion of either joy, pain, suspense, fear, terror or mystery, that secretly gets registered with the audience while watching the respective scene unfold before them on a wide screen.

    The criteria for a shot are the light size, its position and the colour. The Key Light is the traditional lighting used for almost every shot which is during most of time positioned forty five degrees above the subject. This angled Key Light setup is called Three-Quarter Light. The Side Lights are positioned to create the needed atmosphere. The Low Key effect is produced to create the mood, and when the light is right under the subject, it is used to produce scary images. The light in the background called the Rim Light, is placed to edge of the subject stand out from the background.

    Generally 4 types of lighting is used in a Three Point Lighting Setup, where the forth one is optional :

    1/ Main - Key Light in front of (or at one side of) the subject
    2/ Secondary - Fill Light, about half as bright as the Key Light and on the opposite side, to soften the shadows.
    3/ Backdrop - Rim Light to make the edge of the subject stand out from the background.
    4/ Optional - A Fourth Light on the background, and/or a Catch Light to bring a reflection inside the eye of the subject.

    The lighting accessories are used to enhance the setup. Reflectors are used to fill in shadows. Diffusers make lights bigger and/or softer. Flags (a black card) are positioned to block the light and/or deepen the shadows.



    The major work to be done during setting up lights is mainly to balance the colour and align the light source to the exposure of the camera with the subject. Outdoor lightening patterns are entirely different from the indoors, where the outdoor has an upper hand due to the daylight and the fabulous cloud cover. Shots can be taken from any direction as the light source is abundant, where as, strict measures has to be taken while shooting indoor.



    The shadowy lighting setup is purposely done in Kabali to create a sense of depth.
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Last edited by mappi; 13th November 2016 at 04:12 PM.
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  11. #29
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure



    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 2 - Visual Story Telling

    Keywords: shot, scene, frame, camera angle, camera movement, focalisation

    Section 2.1 - Frames & Shots (part 1/2)

    The Moving Picture

    A film is a multimedia narrative form based on a physical record of sounds and moving pictures. The smallest unit on a film's visual plane is a frame or cell showing a single picture. Projection of Twenty-Four frames per second on a screen makes the human eye into seeing a moving image. A shot is a sequence of frames filmed in a continuous and uninterrupted take of a camera. A sequence of shots makes up a scene, which is the continuous action segments taking place at the same time and in the same place. A sequence of acts make up a film.

    The conventional system of shot types is based on two distinguishing features: One, the camera's distance from the object; Two, the size of the object. There are three different techniques involved with shots. The primary is the shot which is a picture captured by the cinematographer with a camera. Followed by Camera Angle, the science behind the capture of the shot which makes the picture interesting (Ref. Section 2.9 - Camera). Finally, the camera movement indicating the way the subject is captured inside a picture that shall deliver the respective communication (Ref. Section 2.9 - Camera).

    Shots are composed with the camera's focal length :

    1/ Extreme Close-Up / Detail Shot (XCU / DS): A small object is magnified or enlarged under the camera. Often plot-relevant objects are detailed in such shot shows.



    2/ Close-up / Close Shot (CU / CS): Full view of a human face/subject. Also, a wider shot showing the upper third of a subject's body.



    3/ Medium Shot (MS): Capturing the upper half of a subject's body.



    4/ Full shot (FS): A full view of a person, head to toe.



    5/ Long Shot (LS): A view from a distance, of a large object or a collection of objects Semi-long shot indicates a slightly closer view.



    6/ Extreme Long Shot (XLS): A view from a considerable distance capturing the subject along with the vast bacgkground where the objects/characters are mere dots.

    Any information on how to screen Indian Movies outside India, please post them here : http://www.mayyam.com/talk/showthrea...-outside-India

  12. #30
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    Kabali: Exploring the Dramatic Structure



    Disclaimer: This work is based on my understanding and my viewpoints. It does not stand in no way as an official document or proof. The definitions are translated according to my understanding. All mistakes are mine.

    Section 2 - Visual Story Telling

    Keywords: shots, scenes, frames, camera angle, camera movement, focalisation

    Section 2.1 - Frames & Shots (part 2/2)

    The practical terms of shots are then divided into theoretical terms to get close to the a character's Point of View. The Focalization, presenting information from character's POV, holds a great deal of efficient and relevant information during a visual narrative:

    1/ Gaze shot : The character looking at something not currently shown. A gaze shot is usually followed by a POV shot (what the character was gazing at).



    2/ Point Of View Shot: The camera assumes the position of a character and shows the objects that the character is looking at.

    3/ Eye-Line Shot (also known as Match Cut): The sequence that assembled a gaze shot followed by the respective POV shot.

    The POV shots / Match Cuts in Kabali are spread across the entire film. They form the primary ingredients of the narrative structure. Apart from the frames used to tell the story, several shots are cut and placed randomly inside the movie forming a wonderful line of visual coherence. These kind of radom images, when put together, narrate their own story within the story which applies a shadow to the original story world they all are contained.

    Kabali’s POV in the interior matches with his wife Kumudhavalli’s exteriror shot. Both shots and scenes are placed during a distinct time event inside the story world.





    Kumudhavalli shown waiting for her husband, looks as though Kabali is present behind her gazing at her, when these two isolating images are matched togther.





    The omnipresence of the characters and their thoughts (memories) are well insisted throughout the film through such images.

    4/ Over-the-Shoulder Shot: The character is captured from its viewing position.



    5/ Reaction shot: A character reacting with wonder, shock, impatience, amusement, annoyance, fear, etc., to what the character has just seen or heard.



    Frame Narrative

    A frame narrative allows the writer/director to narrate a story within a story. From the audience perspective, the frame narrative leads them to follow the first story and jump into another one, which is within the overall story. The frame narrative calls in much attention to the situation of how the story is told, as the director creates the context for how the narrative should be interpreted which certainly varies from viewer to viewer called Multiple Perspectives.

    In Kabali, the story does demonstrate who is the protagonist, but the narrative presents Kabali through the point of view of other characters within the same story, that provide the viewer with more information about Kabali including his motivations, thoughts and feelings.

    Mirror Shot

    A reflection of the character onto a different medium, notably mirrors. A mirror shot is my favourite and most of the time the terminologies defining shots omit this fabulous picture. I call it a 'Tricky Shot', and sincerely hope one day this type of shots are included in the main theory too.

    I adore the way the cinematographers and director realise it. The beauty is, just like the frame narrative which is a story within a story, Tricky Shot is a picture within a Picture. On a personal tone, I often wonder before a mirror, which image is real, the one looking into the mirror or the one that is looking back at (and I leave it there ...).



    Frames & Shots in Kabali build up the dramatic structure, moulding it into different shapes and forms that make the narrated (told) story interesting to watch.
    Last edited by mappi; 14th November 2016 at 06:04 PM.
    Any information on how to screen Indian Movies outside India, please post them here : http://www.mayyam.com/talk/showthrea...-outside-India

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