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Thread: The 1000th year of accession of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1

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    The 1000th year of accession (A.D.1014-2014) of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1 on Chola throne - Part 3

    (Under Construction)

    (28) The second Chola trade delegation to China

    In the year A.D.1020 (in the fourth reign year 'tien-hi' of Emperor Cheng Sung) a second trade delegation was sent to China by Rajendra Chola - 1 which was lead by the chief ambassodor Pa-lan-te-molie.

    On the arrival of the delegation at the port of Kouang-Tcheou, Pa-lan-te-molie died of the disease of exhaustion. However the other members of the delegation were sent to the Chinese court to present the credentials he carried with him to the Chinese Emperor. He treated the other members of the delegation with due respect, and confered the title of "Podre of Traitor" on the deceased Pa-lan-e-molie as in the case of all foreigners who met the same fate, and all members of the delegation were provided with rich presents and sent were back to Chola country.

    In the year A.D.1022 the Chinese Emperor Cheng Sung demised and was succeeded on the Chinese throne by Emperor Jen Sung (A.D.1023-1064)

    (2) Rajendra Chola's war expeditions in the Indian Mainland

    Rajendra Cholan - 1 commenced his war expeditions in the Indian Mainland when he was yet a co-regent of his father, with the capture of Iddaithurai Naadu the central Karnataka, bordering Andhra Pradesh, Vanavaasi of west Karnataka, in one expedition in the year A.D.1012. He therafter directed his attention on Kollipaakkai of north Andhra Pradesh, and captured same in the year A.D.1013. The above two expeditions were carried our by Rajendra Chola - 1 on behalf of his father Rajaraja Chola - 1.

    In the year A.D.1014 he lead an expedition against the Irrataipaadi Elaraillakam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra, and captured its capital city the Mannaikadakkam the Maleked, also on behalf of his father, which met the reverse after its intial capture by Rajaraja Cholan in the year A.D.1006.

    With the death of Rajaraja Cholan - 1 in the year A.D.1014, and with the accension of Rajendra Cholan - 1 in the same year as the next emperor of the Chola empire, there was a lapse of two years in the latter continuing with his war expeditions.

    In the year A.D.1016 he first sent an expedition overseas to Elamandalam the Sri Lanka, and brought the entire island under his rule. This was followed by an expedition of Rajendra Cholan to east Kerala in the year A.D.1017 which captured the Kudamalai Nadu.

    Rajendra Cholan's forces crossed seas again, in the year A.D.1018, and captured the Pal Palanthivam the many islands of Maldives & Lakshadweep. This was followed by the capture of Sandimaaththivu the Mangalore Island overseas west of Kerala, in the same year A.D.1018.

    In the year A.D.1019 Rajendra Cholans sent another expedition against the Irrataipaadi Elaraiillakam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra - now with its new capital at Kalyani, in the northmost Karnataka which the Cholas lost again but re-captured after a battle at Musangi of east Karnataka.

    Rajendra Cholan - 1 with his capture of many regions in the Indian mainland after a lapse of two years he became more ambitious in conquering the northern and north-western regions of India.

    He commenced his war expedition in this direction in the year A.D.1021 with his capture of Sakkarakkoattam the south Chhattisgarh.

    From here he split his forces in to two and sent one in the direction of Ganges river in the north and the other in the north-western direction while he stationed himself at Sakkarakkoattam until the two expeditions were complete.

    The first expedition went towards the north-west of India from Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria, Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the kingdoms of Mathuramandalam the west Uttar Pradesh, Namanaikkonam of north Haryana, Panchappalli of east Punjab (of Pakistan) Maasunidesam of north Punjab (of Pakistan) and Athinagar (the Purvadesam - Purva means ancient) of south Kashmir.

    This expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 towards the north-west of India, was to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight the invasion of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar.

    The Chola Indian Mainland expedition ended in A.D.1022 and details of the countries conquered by his forces in this single expedition was included in his Meikeerthi's from the year A.D.1023

    Evidences on the above references

    The Standard "Meikeerththi" or 'Prasaththi' (True Glory) of Rajendra Chola - 1, seen as a mandatory prologue to the texts of many of his Inscriptions on the walls, the pillars and elsewhere in the Chola Temples of granite structure, found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Sri Lanka which is as follows:

    (30) Kingdoms in the Indian mainland and 'near' overseas


    English Transcription of the above

    ".......Idaithurainadu,
    Vanavaasi whose unbroken hedge of forest (trees) was extending,
    Kollippaakkai whose walls were surrounded with brushwood,
    Mannaikkadakkam whose fortification was unapproahable,
    the crown of the king of Elam who came to close quarters fighting the exceedingly fine
    crowns of the queens of that (king) the beautiful crown and Indra's pearl necklace which
    the king of south (Paandiya) had previously deposited with that (king of Elam)the whole of
    Elamandalam (on) the transparent sea, the crown praised
    by many and the garland emitting beautiful rays family treasures which the (kings of)
    Kerala whose armies possessing missile weapons rightfully wore,
    Pal Palanthivum (Maldive Islands) whose old great guard was the ocean
    which resounds with its conches, the crown of pur gold worthy of Tiru (Lakshmi) which
    Parasurama wore having considered the fortifications of
    Saanththimaaththivu impregnable had deposited (there) when in
    anger (he) bound the kings twenty-one times in battle, the
    Irattaipaadi Elaraiyillakkam (which was) strong by nature
    (and which he took) together with immeasurable fame (from) Jayasimha who out
    of fear turned his back at Musangi and hid himself (thus earning) great fame,
    the principal great mountains (which) contained the nine treasures (of Kubera),
    Sakkarakkokottam (guraded by) brave warriors,
    the ancient and strong northern Mathuramandalam,
    Naamanaikkonam, which was surrounded by dense grooves,
    Panchappalli (protected by ) warriors (who bore) cruel bows, the moth (grown) ancient
    Masunidesam a large heap of family treasures together with many (other) treasures
    (which he carried away) after having captured Indraratha of the old race of the moon together
    with (his) family in a flight which took place in the beautiful city of
    Athinagar filled with unceasing abundance,
    Ottavishayam which was difficult to appraoch (and which he subdued) in) close fight, the good
    Kosalainadu where Brahmanas abounded,
    Thandabuththi in whose gardens beetles abounded (and which he acquired)
    after having destroyed Dharmapala (in) a hot battle,
    Thakkanaladam whose fame reached (all) directions (and which he occupied)
    after having forcebly attacked Ranasura,
    Vangaladesam where the rain-wind never stopped (and from which) Govichandra
    fled having decended (from its) male elephant , elephants of rare strength and treasures
    of women (which he seized) after having been pleased to put to flight on a hot battlefield,
    Mahipala decked (as he was) with ear-rings, slippers and bracelets,
    Uttaraladam in the neighbourhood of the expansive ocean abounding in pearls and the
    Ganga (river) whose waters dashed against the bank filled with fragrant flowers ......"
    ............maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    "......Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Choladevar Uththarapathaththil Poopathiyarai jayiththaruli uthothsava vivaththaal ganga parikiraham panni arulina Gangaikonda Cholan ennum thirunaamaththaal iththiru muttaththil vaitharulina uththamaakkirama Gangaikonda Cholanil unnum......Vaishnavar......"
    Inscription from the temple Gangaikondacholiswarem at Ennaayiram, South Arcot, Tamil Nadu
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - ......


    Discussion

    The above Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 very positively confirms that his forces have won over the the kings of Uththarapatham.
    The last four regions towards North-West India namely Naamanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam, and Athinagar were the regions of Uttarapatham. Rajendra Cholan - 1 claims in one of his inscription from Kulampandal that he also won the "kings of Uttarapatham". Dharmasastra of Manu states Uttarapatham lies to the west of the place where river Sarawathi disappears. Great Indian Epic Mahabharata states ".....the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandaras, Kiratas, and Barbarahs who were born in Uttarapatham......", which were all situated in north-western India. Nepali Manuscripts says "....Purushapuram territory in Uttarapatham.....". Purushapura is the present Peshawar in the upper Sind valley region of present Pakistan. Kaviya Mimansa states the Uttarapatha lay on the western side of Prthudaka. The Prthudaka was formerly situated north of present Delhi. The great Kerala Tamil Epic - Manimekalai specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country" which encompassed the south Kashmir region. Further Al-Beruni states "....Udunpur in Purvadesa.....". Udunpur is undoubtedly the present Udhampur of south Jammu & Kashmir - a derivation from Udunpur to Udhumpur and then to Udhampur. The foregoing indicates to us somewhat accurately the regions covered by Uttarapatham, which was conquered by Rajendra Cholan - 1

    The confedaracy that existed between the Bhoja king of Malawa and Rajendra Chola - 1 is 'confirmed' by an inscription from Balagamve in south Maharashtra which refers to Cholas "as the greatest of kings". Another inscription from Kulenur in Karnataka confirms this confederacy was not only between Bhoja of Malawa and Rajendra Chola, but also inclusive of Gangeya of Kalachuria.

    Evidence on the above References:

    "......Bhojadeva - together with the moon of Kalachuris - worshiped full of fear like a pupil, (this) master of warfare (the Vidyadhara) who has caused the destruction of the king of Kanyakubja......" (inscription dated Saka 941)
    Inscription of Vidyadhara the Chandella king, on slab from Mahaboba, presently at Lucknow Museum in Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Epigraphia Indica - Vol 1, Page 219.


    ".......O Kundiga when they name thee in respect of courage what further praise can others give? Is it not what is said by the troops of elephants of the Chola, Gangeya and king Bhoja with open mouths as they flee away in the battle where they are pressed by (thy) elephants.....in the cyclic year Vibava the 950th (Year) of Saka......"
    Inscription of Jayasimha-2 the Westeren Chalukiya king, on stone behind Hanuman temple at Kulenur in Dharwar district, Karnataka state, India.
    Epigraphia Indica - Vol 15, Page 333.


    "......that famous king Jayasimha - a moon to the lotus which was king Bhoja glorious as sun, a very lion to the elephant which was Chola the greatest of kings - was esteemed the supreme king of kings.....having searched out , beset and pursued ground down and put to flight the confederacy of Malava......Kundama the chieftain .....(in the year of the Saka era 941 repaired the temple of God Nandikesvaradeva......"
    Inscription of Kadamba Chieftain Kundama on stone slab at Balagamve in the extreme lower Maharastra State, India.
    Indian antiquary - Vol 5, Page 17/18


    (31) Some of the War trophies brought to Chola country after the North Indian expedition of Chola Forces

    With the defeat of king Mahipala of the Pala Dynasty and capture of his country the Uttara Ladam located on the north of then Vangaladesam by the victorious forces of Rajendra Chola - 1 brought as a war trophy a bronze idol of God Siva in the form of Rishaba Thaandavamurththi peculiar of the Bengal style of bronze images of Siva into Tamil Nadu and was placed at Melaikadambur temple. There is also a bronze image at Melaikadambur temple at Kumbakonam (Kudanthai) of God Ganesha apparently brought in after the North Indian expedition by Rajendra Chola's forces. Further there is a a stone image of Vinayagar finely carved seen at the Nageswara Temple at Kumbakonam (Kudanthai) which is called as Gangaikonda Vinayagar which was too was brought in as a trophy after the Gangetic expedition of the Chola forces.

    Gangaikonda Vinayagar

    Map showing the kingdoms captured by Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1014-1044) in North India, Bangaladesh and Pakistan - regions, on his expedition towards these regions in A.D.1021



    (32) Commemoration of Chola victory in the Purvadesam and Gangetic region expedition

    With the return of the of the Chola forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 to Chola capital, from their victorius expedition to Uttarapatham and Gangetic region countries in A.D.1022, the Royal Guru of Rajendra Cholan - 1 the Isaanasiva Pandithar built a temple at Kulampandel in Tamil Nadu named as Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple.

    With his return Rajendra Cholan - 1 claimed a new title as "Gangaikondaan" and gave the title "Gangaikonda Cholan" (the Chola who captured Gangai) to his younger brother who lead the Gangetic expedition.

    Rajendra Cholan - 1 commenced the construction of a new city named the "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", with a new Siva Temple named "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem", and a big 'temple water tank' named the "Chola Gangam" where the holy water brought in from the Ganges River was mixed.

    The Essalam Copper Plates of Rajendra Cholan - 1 specifically states that with the conquest of the Gangetic region, it was Rajendra Cholan - 1 who constructed the new city the Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the great Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple, and the sacred Cholagangam Tank at the Udaiyar Palaiyam region of Ariyalur district.

    (33) Rajendra Chola - 1 built a new City, Temple and Tank after his war expeditions

    After the Gangetic expedition of Rajendra Chola - 1's he and his forces returned to their capital city Thanjavur. He decided to commemorate his conquer of the Gangetic river region in North India beyond present Bihar, and built a new capital city named Gangaikonda Cholapuram in the present Ariyalur district of Tamil Nadu. In this new city he built his new Royal Palace named Mudikondasolan with a open sheltered terrace (Kalluri) surrounding a flower garden on it's northern side. He also built a granite temple to God Siva represented in his aru-uruvam form as Sivalingam in the karuvarai of this temple named as Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer, and the temple in turn was known as Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem. The Bronze Icons of Siva and Sakthi were represented in their uruvam form being the next principal deities of the temple taken in processions on religious occasions were known as Peruvudaiyaar and Periyanayaki (in Tamil).

    He also built a temple tank named Cholagangam closer to this temple into which Kudams (Containers) of Holy Water collected from the Gangetic river by the returning Chola forces after their victorious expedition beyond this river, were mixed with the waters of the Cholagangam tank with the intention of purifying same.

    The construction of the new city Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Royal Palace

    With his victory the Northeren & North-West regions of India Rajendra Chola-1 Rajendra Chola built a new city named as Gangaikonda Cholapuram at the present Ariyalur district in Tamil Nadu, and named it as "Mudikonda Cholan" not far from the Gangaikonda Choleswaer temple.

    Evidence on the above References:

    "......in the 'open sheltered terrace' (kalluri)[wrongly interpreted in the South Indian Inscription volume as 'college'], which surrounds the king’s flower-garden (aram) on the northern side of the royal hall (tiru-maligai) of Mudikonda-Soran within the palace (koyil) at Gangaikonda-Solapuram, the lord Sri-Rajendra-Sola-deva vouched to order......"
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 1, Inscription No -
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on the Rajarajaeswarem temple, Thanjavur.


    (34)The construction of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram

    Rajendra Chola - 1 commenced the construction of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer at his new capital city built named Gangaikonda Cholaouram temple (at the present Ariyalur district) immediately after his outstanding victory of his Gangetic region (eri punal Gangaiyum kondu) and Purvadesam (Uththarapathathu poopathiyarai ventru) expedition. He was very ambitious to start construction on the great monument dedicated to God Sive in dedication and commemoration of his outstanding victories which necessiated the removal of the master stonecraftman (Silpis = Kalthatchars) from doing the finishing touches in the subsidiary buildings in the Rajarajeswarem temple at Thanjavur, and assigning them to commence the construction of his ambitious project the Gangaikonda Cholaeaswarer temple.

    Discussion

    Though the main temple structure of the Rajarajeswarem temple at Thanjavur built by Rajaraja Chola - 1 was fully complete some subsidiary sections of the temple complex were in it's final stages and needed the final touches at the time of his death, even though the Kudamullukku Peru Villa was held in A.D. 1011. The Inscriptions on the donations made by various personal of the Royal Family too were only partly carved out and the balance were executed after accession Rajendra Chola - 1 following Rajaraja - Chola - 1.

    With Rajaraja Chola - 1 falling ill in his final stages of life around A.D.1014, the completion of construction work on the outer Thiruchuttru Malikai built riight round the temple was left in charge to one of his army general namely the Mumuddichola Brahmmarayer which were in need of final carving and dressing. Inside the main temple too in the first tier corridor where the 108 Karnas (dancing poses) of Baratha Naatiyam were carved only 86 poses have been completed and the balance remained to be carved and the final finishing touches to the subsidiary complex were continued even during the period of Rajendra Chola - 1 possibly in a slow pace due to Rajendra Chola's war pre-occupation with many of his ambitious war expeditions.

    Even the view held by many Scholars that the so called Painting of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and Karuvur Thevar at Rajarajeswarem temple could be disputed. Due to the delay in completion of subsidiary portion of Rajarajeswarem temple at the time of demise of Rajaraja Chola as seen above there is a good possibilty that the Paintings in the first tier of the Vimanam of Rajarajewarem too


    (35)Structural Architecture of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram

    கங்கைகொண்ட சோளேச்சரம்

    அன்னமாய் விசும்பு பறந்தயன் தேட
    அங்ஙனே பெரியநீ சிறிய
    என்னையாள் விரும்பி என்மனம் புகுந்த
    எளிமையை என்றும்நான் மறக்கேன்
    முன்னம்மால் அறியா ஒருவனாம் இருவா
    முக்கணா நாற்பெருந் தடந்தோள்
    கன்னலே தேனே அமுதமே கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 1

    உண்ணெகிழ்ந்(து) உடலம் நெக்குமுக் கண்ணா !
    ஓலமென்(று) ஓலமிட்(டு) ஒருநாள்
    மண்ணினின்று அலறேன் வழிமொழி மாலை
    மழலையஞ் சிலம்படி முடிமேல்
    பண்ணிநின்(று) உருகேன் பணிசெயேன் எனினும்
    பாவியேன் ஆவியுள் புகுந்தென்
    கண்ணினின்று அகலான் என்கொலோ கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 2

    அற்புதத்தெய்வம் இதனின்மற் றுண்டே
    அன்பொடு தன்னைஅஞ் செழுத்தின்
    சொற்பதத் துள்வைத்(து) உள்ளம்அள் ளூறும்
    தொண்டருக்(கு) எண்டிசைக் கனகம்
    பற்பதக் குவையும் பைம்பொன்மா ளிகையும்
    பவளவா யவர்பணை முலையும்
    கற்பகப் பொழிலும் முழுதுமாம் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 3

    ஐயபொட் டிட்ட அழகுவாள் நுதலும்
    அழகிய விழியும்வெண்ணீறும்
    சைவம்விட் டிட்ட சடைகளும் சடைமேல்
    தரங்கமும் சதங்கையும் சிலம்பும்
    மொய்கொள்எண் திக்கும் கண்டநின் தொண்டர்
    முகமலர்ந்து இருகணீர் அரும்பக்
    கைகள்மொட் டிக்கும் என்கொலோ கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 4

    கருதிவா னவனாம் திருநெடு மாலாம்
    சுந்தர விசும்பின்இந் திரனாம்
    பருதிவா னவனாம் படர்சடை முக்கண்
    பகவனாம் அகஉயிர்க்கு அமுதாம்
    எருதுவா கனனாம் எயில்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
    ஏறுசே வகனுமாம் பின்னும்
    கருதுவார் கருதும் உருவமாம் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 5

    அண்டமோர் அணுவாம் பெருமைகொண்(டு) அணுவோர்
    அண்டமாம் சிறுமைகொண்(டு) அடியேன்
    உண்டவூண் உனக்காம் வகைஎன துள்ளம்
    உள்கலந்(து) ஏழுபரஞ் சோதி
    கொண்டநாண் பாம்பாம் பெருவரை வில்லில்
    குறுகலர் புரங்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
    கண்டனே ! நீல கண்டனே ! கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 6

    மோதலைப் பட்ட கடல்வயி(று) உதித்த
    முழுமணித் திரள்அமு(து) ஆங்கே
    தாய்தலைப் பட்டங்(கு) உருகிஒன் றாய
    தன்மையில் என்னைமுன் ஈன்ற
    நீதலைப் பட்டால் யானும் அவ்வகையே
    நிசிசரர் இருவரோடு ஒருவர்
    காதலிற் பட்ட கருணையாய் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 7

    தத்தையங் கனையார் தங்கள்மேல் வைத்த
    தயாவைநூ றாயிரங் கூறிட்(டு)
    அத்திலங்(கு) ஒருகூ(று) உன்கண்வைத் தவருக்(கு)
    அமலரு(கு) அளிக்கும்நின் பெருமை
    பித்தனென்(று) ஒருகால் பேசுவ ரேனும்
    பிழைத்தவை பொறுத்தருள் செய்யும்
    கைத்தலம் அடியேன் சென்னிவைத்த கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 8

    பண்ணிய தழல்காய் பாலளா நீர்போல்
    பாவமுன் பறைந்துபா லனைய
    புண்ணியம் பின்சென்(று) அறிவினுக்(கு) அறியப்
    புகுந்ததோர் யோகினில் பொலிந்து
    நுண்ணியை எனினும் நம்பநின் பெருமை
    நுன்னிடை ஒடுங்கநீ வந்தென்
    கண்ணினுள் மணியிற் கலந்தனை கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 9

    அங்கைகொண்(டு) அமரர் மலர்மழை பொழிய
    அடிச்சிலம்பு அலம்பவந்(து) ஒருநாள்
    உங்கைகொண் டடியேன் சென்னிவைத் தென்னை
    உய்யக்கொண் டருளினை மருங்கில்
    கொங்கைகொண்(டு) அனுங்கும் கொடியிடை காணில்
    கொடியள்என்(று) அவிர்சடை முடிமேல்
    கங்கைகொண் டிருந்த கடவுளே ! கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 10

    மங்கையோ டிருந்த யோகுசெய் வானை
    வளர்இளந் திங்களை முடிமேல்
    கங்கையோ(டு) அணியும் கடவுளைக் கங்கை
    கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானை
    அங்கையோ டேந்திப் பலிதிரி கருவூர்
    அறைந்தசொல் மாலையால் ஆழிச்
    செங்கையோ(டு) உலகில் அரசுவீற் றிருந்து
    திளைப்பதும் சிவனருட் கடலே. 11

    Courtesy Sridharan Srinivasan of YouTube

    Courtesy Sridharan Srinivasan of YouTube

    Courtesy Sridharan Srinivasan of YouTube



    (33) Some beautiful Sculptures from the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram

    [


    (36) The construction of the temple tank the Chola Gangam at Gangaikonda Cholapuram


    (37) Further commemoration of Rajendra Chola - 1 victory of his capture of Gangetic region

    The step-brother of Rajendra Chola - 1 who lead the war expedition towards the Gangetic region was given the title Gangaikonda Cholan by Rajendra Chola. He himself assumed the title Gangaikondaan. The royal guru of Rajendra Chola - 1 namely the Esaana Siva Pandithar built another temple at Kulampandal in Ennaayiram and named as (vadakku) Gangaikonda Choliswarem.



    "......Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Choladevar Uththarapathaththil Poopathiyarai jayiththaruli uthothsava vivaththaal ganga parikiraham panni arulina Gangaikonda Cholan ennum thirunaamaththaal iththiru muttaththil vaitharulina uththamaakkirama Gangaikonda Cholanil unnum......Vaishnavar......"
    Inscription from the temple Gangaikondacholiswarem at Ennaayiram, South Arcot, Tamil Nadu
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - ......


    There had been yet another temple by the name Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Further another temple by the name Gangaikonda Choliswarem was built in the Nigarili Cholamandam alias Thadikaipaadi the present Mulbagel region of Karanataka state which was under the Chola rule during that time.

    There had been on the periphery of this garden there had been a college where religious studies had been conducted by (his Guru) the Saiva Aachariya - Sarvasiva Pandithar, which provided provisions of food to the deserving among his pupils, (and in turn) their pupils who have come (to learn under them the faith of Saivaism) who were natives of Aryadesa, Madhyadesa or Gaudadesa in North India.

    Evidence on the above References:

    "......having been pleased to make gifts in the college (kalluri), which surrounds the king’s flower-garden (aram) on the northern side of the royal hall (tiru-maligai) of Mudikonda-Solan within the palace (koyil) at Gangaikonda-Sorapuram, the lord Sri-Rajendra-Sola-deva vouched to order, that two thousand kalam of paddy, fully measured by the marakkal (preserved) in the temple of this god (and) called (after) Adavallan, should be supplied every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, to the treasury in the city, to be enjoyed (bhoga) by the priests (acharya) of the temple of the lord Sri-Rajaraja-Isvara, (viz.) by our lord, the [Sai]vacharya Sarvasiva-pandita, and by those who shall deserve it among the pupils (sishya) of this lord and the pupils of his pupils (prasishya), who are natives of Aryadesa, Madhyadesa or Gaudadesa. (The above order) was written by the royal minister (who writes the king’s) orders, Sembiyan Virupparaiyan, (and) engraved on stone, as heard from the mouth of the king. Let the saiva-acharyas of this (spiritual) line (vamsa) protect this charity (dharma)!
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 1, Inscription No -
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on the Rajarajaeswarem temple, Thanjavur.


    (38) Rajendra Chola - 1 issues gold coin to commemorate his victory over Gangetic region

    Rajendra Chola - 1 to commemorate his victory over the Gangetic region in North India issued a gold coin bearing the writing in it as "Gangaikonda Chola". This coin have the emblem arrow of Cheras, double fish of Pandiyas on its both sides who were tributory to Cholas.



    (39) Rajendra Chola - 1 other Palaces in Tamil Country

    Rajendra Chola - 1 continued to use the earlier Palaces used by his father Emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 in Keralanthaha Malikai at Thanjavur and Kanchipuram which had audience hall named Rajendra Choan.

    yanclu padinonru nal irunurru-elupadu Purva-desamuri-Garigaiyuri-goncIa
    K6-pParakesaripanmar aua uclaiyar sri-Rajentra-Sola-Devar Kanchi-purattuk-
    koyilin-ullal attattu veli melai-manclapam Rajeutra-Solanil eluntaruli
    iruntu Nigarili-Sola-mancIalattu-k-Kuvalala-nattu Pasaipala karanmai miyatchiyum
    migudi-k-kui;aimaiyum ulladariga vellan-vagaiyil niudal yanclu elavadu
    mudal tavirntu ivv-ur kaai-kkadan nellu nii_i;r-elupatt-en-kalane-oru-naliyum


    (40) The strain in the Chola - Sri Vijaya relationship

    At Sri Vijaya Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman unlike during the period of his predecessors the good hostilities that existed between these two empires broke. This probably occured due to him not withstanding to see the flourishing Chola trade in the South-East Asian region and with China, as against the trade of Sri Vijaya empire in these regions. He imposed some drastic trade laws and heavy taxes detrimental to the already flourishing Chola trade especially in the in the kingdom of Kadarem among the Indian colony of traders in the Bujang valley region which was under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire.

    The above course of action would have been instituted by the Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya through his viceroy at Kadarem namely the king Linggi Johan, which would have caused much damages to the flourishing Chola trade at Kadarem and caused much anger to the already aggressive and imperialistic Cholas.

    (41) The great Chola war expedition sent overseas to South-East Asia

    The imense strain in the Chola - Sri Vijaya relationship caused Rajendra Chola - 1 to send a large naval expedition excessively powerfull in arms with a large fleet of ships to South - East Asia in the year A.D.1022 lead by his grandson and many kingdoms in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Malaysia, Sumatra of Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, and lower Miyanmar (former Burma) (i.e. his son Rajendra Chola - 2's son)

    Further he sent many ships overseas and first captured Andaman & Nicobar Islands then the Sri Vijaya capital city of the Sri Vijaya Empire of South-East Asia of tis region in South Sumatra Island of Indonesia, the neighbouring kingdom of Malaiyur in central Sumatra of Sri Vijaya kingdom, Pane in the north-east of Sumatra Island, Lamuri kingdom in the north of mainland Sumatra. His Chola forces further captured Kedah kingdom in Malaysia, Lankasuka north-east of Kedah, the Valaipanjura kingdom east of Kedah in the mainland Malaysia,

    Evidence on the following References:

    அலைகடல் நடுவுள் பலகலம் செலுத்திச் (Sent many Ships amidst the sea with waves)
    சங்கிராம விசையோத் துங்க வன்மன் (Sangirama Vijayotungavarman)
    ஆகிய கடாரத்து அரசனை வாகயம் (the king of Kadarem)
    பொருகடல் கும்பக் கரியொடும் அகப்படுத்து 50 (......captured)
    உரிமையில் பிறக்கிய பெருநிதி பிறக்கமும்
    ஆர்த்தவன் அகநகர்ப் போர்த் தொழில் வாசலில்
    விச்சா தரதோ ரணமும் முத்தொளிர்
    புனைமணி புதவமும் கனமணிக் கதவமும்
    நிறை சீர் விசயமும் துறைநீர்ப் பண்ணையும் - - 55 (Sri Vijaya and Pannai))
    நன்மலை யூரெயில் தொன்மலை யூரும் (Malaiyur)
    ஆழ்கடல் அகழ்சூழ் மாயிரு டிங்கமும் (Ma-Irudingam)
    கலங்கா வல்வினை இலங்கா அசோகமும் (Ilangasokam)
    காப்புறு நிறைபுனல் மாப்பப் பாளமும் (Ma-Pappalam)
    காவல் புரிசை மேவிலிம் பங்கமும் - - - - - - - -60 (Mevilimbangam)
    விளைப்பந் தூருடை வளைப்பந் தூரும் (Valaipanthur)
    கலாமுதிர் கடுந்திறல் இலாமுரி தேசமும் (Ilamuridesam)
    கலைத்தக் கோர்புகழ்த் தலைத் தக்கோலமும் (Thalitakkolam)
    தீதமர் வல்வினை மாதமா லிங்கமும் (Ma-Thamaling)
    தேனக் கலர்பொழில் மாநக்க வாரமும் - - - - -65 (Ma-Nakkavarem)
    தொடுகடற் காவல் கடுமுரண் கடாரமும் (Kadaram)
    மாப்பொரு தண்டாற் கொண்ட (won with the victorious mace)
    கோப் பரகேசரி பன்மரான (Ko Parakesaripanmaraana alias)
    உடயார் ஸரீஇராசேந்திர சோழ தேவர்க்கு யாண்டு (Udaiyaar Rajendra Thevar)
    ...........வது- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -



    English Transcription of the above

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai
    vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu,
    avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum - nirai Sri Vijayamum,
    thuraineer Pannaiyum, nanmalai uur eyil thon Malaiyurum,
    aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum, kalangaa valvinai Ilangaasokamum,
    kaappuru nirai punal Maa-Pappaalamum, kaavalam purisai Mevili-Bangkamum,
    vilaip panthurudai Valaipanthurum, kalaamuthi kadunthiral Ilaamurithesamum,
    kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum, theethamar valvinai Maa-Thamaalingamum,
    thenakkalar polil Maa-Nakkavaaramum, thodukadal kaaval kadumuran Kadaaramum,
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The capture of the Nicobar islands by Chola forces

    The mighty Chola forces crossed seas and reached Nakkavarem the present Nicobar island which was captured and brought under their rule. It appears this island was made the centre of their operations for their capture of Kadarem and Sri Vijaya.

    Evidence on the above References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thenakkalar polil Maa-Nakkavaaramum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    http://www.my-india-travelguide.com/...ar-islands.htm

    It further appears the Chola naval fleet was divided into three units from here, and one expedition headed towards Kadarem under the command of the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 (son of Rajendra Chola - 2). The second expedition headed direct to the kingdom of Sri Vijaya in the south-east direction around Sumatra of Indonesia under the Chola General Chola Brammaraayer, and the third expedition direct to Talaitakkolam under another Chola General direct to South Thailand

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    [color=grey]"......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.
    [/color

    Chola forces capture Sri Vijaya in Sumatra

    The valiant Chola fleet reached the kingdom of Sri Vijaya also known as Sri Vijayapura in the island of Suvarnadvipa alias Suvarnapura - the island Sumatra, and defeated the (overlord) king of Kadarem (Kataka) - who was the Emperor of the mighty Sri Vijaya empire the Sangirama Vijayotungavarman (A.D.1020-1023) of the Sailendra dynasty. The Chola forces captured his fortress Malayagiri at his capital city the Vijayanagara.

    He was taken captive along with the elephants of his glorious army, large heaps of treasures and the Vidyaadhara Thoranam (arch) at the war-gate of his extensive capital city the Sri Vijaya (nagara) with the jewelled-wicket gate adorned with great splendour and the gate of large jewels. His extensive kingdom of Sri Vijaya which covered approximately the present South Sumatra, Lampung and Benkulu provinces of the island Sumatra came under the fold of the mighty Chola empire, and a Chola Prince was appointed as the viceroy of this kingdom. However the family members and daughter of Sangramavijayotungvarman went to West Java for safety. The forces now directed their attention on territories which were under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire.

    The above are confirmed by the following References

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu, avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum, nirai Sri Vijayamum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Mevilibangkam adjacent to South Sumatra

    The Chola forces next crossed over and captured Mevilibankam the present Banka island neighbouring the south-east coastel region of Sumatra opposite the Sri Vijaya kingdom. The ruling king of this region is not known. However the Mevilibankam too was under th sway of Sri Vijaya empire duing this period.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kaavalam purisai Mevili-Bangkamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko ParakesaripanmUdaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Malaiyuur in Sumatra

    The forces from here moved into Malaiyur (Melayuu) in the mainland of Sumatra, a mountainous region approximately comprising the present Jambi and Perkanbaru states of central Sumatra which too they captured and brought under their control. The city fortress of Malaiyur was located at the Jambi proper adjacent to the river Batanghari.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......nanmalai uur eyil thon Malaiyuurum,.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu......"

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    ".......Saavakam erinthu Arumanam poruthu sinthath thakarththu Malayuurin uruva purisai thalli
    Koaham nekilnthu kulayumpadi Kadaarem kollum oru Cholan marukaa !......'

    Kulothungan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, edited by T.S.Gangatharan, verse 92 Thanjavur Sarawathi Mahal Library publication


    Chola forces capture Pannai in Sumatra

    They continued with their naval expedition and captured Pannai (Pane). in the north of Sumatra. Here they set a garrison probably for the protetion of the interests of the numerous Chola traders in this region. The Chola army thereafter crossed seas.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thuraineer Pannaiyum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Ilamuidesam in Sumatra

    From here they proceeded to Ilamuridesam (Lemuri) approximatly covering the present Acheh province in the extreme north of the island Sumatra, conquered the territory and brought that too under their rule.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalaamuthi kadunthiral Ilaamurithesamum .......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The Chola army thereafter crossed seas and reached Kadarem to join the earlier division of their army lead by the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:


    Chola forces capture the great Kadaaram in north-west peninsular Malaysia

    The Cholas fleet lead by the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1, reached the kingdom of Kadaaram and landed at the estuary of Perak River and reached the Ganganagar (Kataka-nagara) it's capital city. They defeated the ruling king of Kadarem the Linga Yohan (Linggi Johan) the viceroy of the Emperor Sangiraama Vijayotungavarman of Sri Vijaya, who met his death in this war, captured and his city the Ganga Nagar. Later he appointed a Chola viceroy at Kadaaram to rule the kingdom which now became a part of the Chola empire. The grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 married Putri Gangga the daughter of the king of Kadaaram the Linga Yohan. This war appears not to have disturbed the Indian colony of traders in the Bujang valley region in th present Kedah province, but strengthened their position more in the kingdom of Kadarem.



    Courtesy Subashini Tremmel of YouTube

    Courtesy Subashini Tremmel of YouTube

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi......thodukadal kaaval Kadaaramum......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."

    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    ".......To him was born the son, the king named Mathuranthaha who was the punisher of the insubordinate and who.....with (the help) of his forces which crossed seas, which were excessively powerful in arms and which had scattered away the armies of all his enemies he burnt Kataha that could not be set on fire by others what is impossible for this Rajendra Chola!...."

    Inscription of Virarajendra Chola at Bahawathi Amman shrine at Agatheseswarem temple in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India
    Travancore Archeological Series vol 111, Part 1, No 41




    Last edited by virarajendra; 14th May 2017 at 12:10 AM.

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