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Thread: A brief study on the Cholas (Cholar) of the Medieval Period

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    Author - Virarajendra

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    A brief study on the Cholas (Cholar) of the Medieval Period (A.D.848 - A.D.1279) Tamil Nadu

    Towards the end of the tenth century A.D. the Cholas rose as a very powerful - "Tamil ruling dynasty of Tamil Nadu", with their capital at "Thanjavur" and later at "Gangaikonda Cholapuram". They conquered vast territories in the Indian mainland and 'near overseas' in the west and south of India, and 'far overseas' in South-East Asia - at the time of their supreme power and greatness around A.D.1025.

    The first Prime Minister of India - Late Hon' Jawarhalal Nehru had clearly acknowledged the - greatness of the Medieval Cholas in the Indian History - and has stated in his book titled "Glimpses of the World History" that - "......the Chola Empire grew to power, and about the middle of the nineth century it dominated the south. It was a Sea-Power and had a big Navy, with which it swept the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.......The Chola Empire thus became very extensive the biggest since the days of the Guptas.....Apart from their success in war, the Cholas were long famous for their sea-trade......". (page 126-127)

    The North Indian Historian A.L.Basham speaks of the formidable position of Cholas in the middle ages in his book titled "Wander that was India" and states "....The Chola Empire was one of the mightiest military powers to arise in South and South-East Asia in the medieval period. The Imperial Cholas were the only seafareing power to dominate the Indian Ocean, and the greater part of it's littoral before modern times. The Imperial Cholas were the only rulers in South Asia before the British who can be credited with having a navy in the modern sense of the term.....". (page 75)

    Measuring their greatness achieved in all fields, a non-Tamil Historian correctly and justifiably referred to the Cholas especialy to Rajaraja Chola - 1 & Rajendra Chola - 1 in his book titled "Currents of South-East Asian History" as "kings of World stature".

    Medieval period Cholas

    (1) Vijayalya Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.848-881 - He was the son of Orriyuran (as per Valenjeri Copper Plates)
    Capital city - Palaiyarai and later at Thanjavur

    (2) Aathiththa Cholan - 1(Rajakesari) : A.D.871-907 - Son of (1)
    Capital city - Thanjavur

    (3) Paraanthaha Cholan - 1 (Parakesari) : A.D.907-955 - Son of (2)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expedition to - Sri Lanka

    (4) Rajathithya Cholan - 1 (Yuvaraja - Heir-apparent) : A.D.947-950 - First Son of (3)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expedition to - Sri Lanka

    (5) Kandarathiththa Cholan (Rajakesari) : A.D.950-957 - Second Son of (3)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam

    (6) Arinchchaya Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.957-958 - Third Son of (3)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam

    (7) Paraanthaha Cholan - 2 (Sundera Cholan) (Rajakesari) : A.D.958-969 - Son of (6)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam
    Overseas War expedition to - Sri Lanka

    (8) Aathiththa Cholan -2 (Yuvaraja - Heir Apparent) : A.D.966-968 - First Son of (7)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Seaport city - Nagapattinam
    Overseas War expedition to - Sri Lanka

    (9) Uththama Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.969-985 - Son of (5)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Sea city - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expedition to - Sri Lanka

    (10) Rajaraja Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.985-1014 - second Son of (7)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Mainland War Expeditions upto - Kalinga (Orrisa) in North-East and Chalukya (Mumbai) in North-West of India (Refer Essalam Copper Plates)
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka & Maldive Islands.
    Over Seas Political Relations with - China and Malaysia

    (11) Rajendra Cholan - 1 (Parakesari) : A.D.1012-1044 - Son of (10)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Mainland War Expeditions upto - River Ganges in North-East India including present Bangaladesh, and the Lower Sind region in the south of the present Pakistan.
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka, Maldive Islands, Laccadive Islands (west of Kerala), Nicobar Islands (present Andaman & Nicobar Islands), lower Miyanmar, lower Thailand, many regions in Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra of Indonesia & Laos onbehalf of the Cambodian king.
    Over Seas Political Relations with - Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Sumatra of Indonesia, Cambodia & China.

    (11A) Rajaraja Chola - 1A (Prince) : A.D.1015-1018 - First Son of (11).
    He was given the title "Chola Keralan" and was made to rule Kerala. He was recalled by Rajendra Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1018 to lead the battle against the Chalukya king Jayasimhan at......where he lost his life. (As per Indalur Copper Plates)

    (12) Rajadhiraja Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1018-1054 - second Son of (11)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

    (13) Rajendra Cholan - 2 (Parakesari) : A.D.1045 -1063 - third Son of (11)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

    (13A) Rajakesari Raja Mahendra Cholan - (Yuvaraja = Heir Apparent) - A.D.1060-1063 - Son of (13)

    (14) Rajakesari Virarajendra Cholan (Rajakesari) : A.D.1063-1070 - fourth Son of (11)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka. Expedition to lower Burma, Kedah region in Malaysia, some regions in Sumatra & Java of Indonesia, and the region of Taoist China near Canton lead by his nephew Kulothunga Chola - 1 (14) "during his youthfull days on behalf of his uncle (the mother's brother) Virarajendra Chola".
    Over Seas Political Relations with - Malaysia, Sumatra of Indonesia.

    (15) Athirajendra Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.1067-1070 - Son of (14)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (16) Kulothunga Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1070-1120 - Son of the Sister of (11A), (12), (13) & (14)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka.
    Over Seas Political Relations with - Malaysia, Sumatra & Java of Indonesia, Miyanmar, Cambodia & China.

    (17) Vikkrama Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.1118-1135 - Son of (16)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (18) Kulothunga Cholan - 2 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1133-1150 - Son of (17)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (19) Rajaraja Cholan - 2 (Parakesari) : A.D.1146-1163 - Son of (18)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram later at Palaiyarai renamed as Rajarajapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (20) Rajadiraja Cholan - 2 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1163-1178 - Grand Son of (17) & a cousin brother of (19)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
    Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

    (21) Kulothunga Cholan - 3 (Parakesari) : A.D.1178-1218 - Son of (20)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (22) Rajaraja Cholan - 3 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1216-1256 - Son of (21)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    (23) Rajendra Cholan - 3 (Parakesari) : A.D.1246-1279 - Son of (22)
    Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
    Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Brahatheeswarer Temple) at Thanjavur was built by Rajakesari Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014)

    Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temple) at Gangaikonda Cholapuram was built by Parakesari Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044)

    Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Airathaveswarer Temple) at Rajarajapuram (present Dharasuraam) at Kumbakonam) was built by Parakesari Rajaraja Chola - 2 (A.D.1146-1163)













    Last edited by virarajendra; 1st May 2016 at 11:27 PM.

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    Re: A brief study on the Cholas (Cholar) of the Medieval Per

    Quote Originally Posted by virarajendra
    <p align="justify">
    (7) Uththama Cholan : A.D.973-985 - Son of (4)
    Capital city - Thanjavur
    Sea city - Nagapattinam
    Per Thiruvalangadu plates, the date of Uttama Chola's coronation was 969. He ruled for 16 years. (see http://inscriptions.whatisindia.com)

    Rgds, Aravind Sitaraman

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    Very informative thread. Thanks virarajendra for your efforts.
    Liberty is my religion. Liberty of hand and brain -- of thought and labor. Liberty is the blossom and fruit of justice -- the perfume of mercy. Liberty is the seed and soil, the air and light, the dew and rain of progress, love and joy.

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    mikka nandri.. tamilan endru sollikolvathil perumai padugiren

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