Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 21

Thread: A brief historical study of Singapore (A.D.1025-1275)

  1. #1
    Senior Member Veteran Hubber
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Posts
    2,256
    Post Thanks / Like
    Author - Virarajendra

    Under Construction


    (brought forward on the occasion of the celebration of Singapore's 50th Year of Independence from mainland Malaysia on 9th August 2015)

    A brief historical study of Singapore (A.D.1025-1275)

    (1) Introduction

    The present Singapore is an Island seperated from the mainland Malaysia and surrounded all round by sea.The Chinese Buddhist Monks Fa-Hein and I-tsing and others from the 5th century onwards travelled to India to learn Buddhism and bring forth Buddhiat Literature embarked from Quang Chow(Canton) seaport and chose to go first to the great city of Sri Vijaya an important centre of Buddhist learning in the east Sumatra.

    They then turned around the southern tip of Sumatra and travelled along the straits in between the Island of Sumatra and mainland Malaysia and visted the 'great trade emporium' of this period namely the Kadaarem (present Kedah) in Malaysia. They then made a direct travel by ship from there to the principal ports of India - namely the Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu and Tamiralipti in East Bengal (the present Bangaladesh) in India. While travelling through the straits between Sumatra and Malaysia they by passed the present Singapore Island very closely. However they have not mentioned anywhere in their travel writtings on this Island of Singapore.

    Hence it is very clear during the 5th century the country of Singapore didnot exit by name, but the island formed a part of the Malay kingdom of Maayirudingam that existed in the southern most end of then Malaysia and was known as Temasek, a region without much human habitation and prominance in the early 11th century. From all historical sources it is confirmed that this Island came into much - prominance and habitation only after the great overseas invasion of the South-East Asian countries, by the greatest Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1014-1044) of the Chola country of Tamil Nadu, located in South India.

    Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 of the Chola country in East-India, sent a big Naval Expedition primerily to defeat the great Sri Vijaya Empire of South-East Asia with it's capital Sri Vijaya (the present Palembang) and the capture of Kadaarem the great Trade Emporium of South-East Asia of that time, where merchants from the then Tamil Nadu and South-East Asian countries had very lucrative trade, and to conquer other South-East Asian countries which were tributaries to the Sri Vijaya Empire.

    The Rajendra Chola - 1 has recorded is great achievements in South-East Asia in the form of Meikeerththi (True Glory or Prasaththi in Sanskrit) which are found in many Hindu Temples where he has made endowments as the introductory Praise Poem listing his territorial achievements before writing the details of his endowments to these temples.

    The "portion" of Rajendra Chola's lengthy Meikeerththi listing out the South-East Asian Countries conquered by him is as follows:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai
    vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu,
    avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum - nirai Sri Vijayamum,
    thuraineer Pannaiyum, nanmalai uur eyil thon Malaiyurum,
    aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum,
    kalangaa valvinai Ilangaasokamum,
    kaappuru nirai punal Maa-Pappaalamum,
    kaavalam purisai Mevili-Bangkamum,
    vilaip panthurudai Valaipanthurum,
    kalaamuthi kadunthiral Ilaamurithesamum,
    kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum,
    theethamar valvinai Maa-Thamaalingamum,
    thenakkalar polil Maa-Nakkavaaramum,
    thodukadal kaaval kadumuran Kadaaramum,
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    This same identical Meikeerththi appears in many Temple inscriptions found in Tamil Nadu and also some in Karnataka and Sri Lanka lists out the countries conquered by him - which includes whole of present Malaysia and Sumatra of Indonesia but not the Singapore, despite the fact the Singapore being very much closer to Sumatra and mainland Malaysia. Hence it gives a clear indication that Singapore was not in existance as a seperate habited country even at the time of Rajendra Chola's invasion, but possibly thinly populated and forming a part of the Johore kingdom of South Malaysia which was the "Maayirudingam" of Rajendra Chola's Meikeerththi.


    (2) The invasion of the South-East Asian Countries by the naval forces of Rajendra Chola - 1

    The Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 after conquer of numerous kingdoms in the Indian Mainland and near overseas by A.D.1022, he concentrated on kingdoms far overseas in the South-East Asia. Around the year A.D.1024 Rajendra Chola - 1 gathered all his forces and sent a very large war expedition overseas in many ships towards South-East Asia.

    The first region they conquered was Nicobar Islands. This was the point from where the Chola forces made their strategy to make their attack in three direction. One under a Chola commander-of-forces (name not known) direct to Thakklolam (Takuapa in south-west Thailand), the second under the Chola Prince Raja Cholan direct to Kadaarem (Kedah in north-west Malaysia) and the third under the Chola-commander-of-forces Chola Brahmmarayer direct to Sri Vijaya (Palembang in south-east Sumatra of Indonesia).

    Important Note:

    Rajendra Chola - 1 sent his mighty naval forces to South-East Asian region and captured twelve different countries. However for the purpose of our study of the History of Singapore within the period from A.D.1025 to A.D.1275 only details of the campaigns of Sri Vijaya, Kadarem and Maayirudingam are required. Hence the study of campaigns to other countries have been left out. However the details of the campaigns made on other nine countries are studied in detail in my Thread titled "The Medieval Chola empire and it's relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand in this same Web site


    Conquer of Kadaarem

    Kadaaram was a 'great trade emporium' of then Malaysia at the estuary of Merbok river, where many Traders from the Chola country and other regions of Tamil Nadu found permanent settlements, around the mountainous region known as 'Valavathi Paarvatham" (Bukit Gunung Jerai the Bujang Valley region) and had a very lucrative trade with the merchants gathering there from many other countries of this region. The city and the fortress of the king of Kadarem was situated in the region of Perak state.

    The Chola forces lead by Raja Cholan (the grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 and son of Rajendra Chola -2) reached the capital city of Kadaarem, defeated the enemy forces and successfully broke into his fortress at Dindings on the other side of the Perak river. In this battle he put to death the king Linggayohan and captured his kingdom of Kadarem - encompassing the present Kedah and Perak states of North West Malaysia.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    ........thodukadal kaaval kadumuran Kadaaramum
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    "Here now is the story of a certain city in the realm of Kalinga (India) its name was Nagapatam (Nagapttinam) and the ruler of this city whose name was Raja Shulan (Raja Cholan......However that may be this Raja Shulan was a mighty Raja to whom all the Rajas of Sind and India and all Rajas of the regions below the wind were subject.....Raja Shulan commanded that his countless armies be assembled......Raja Shulan set forth his purpose being to reduce all cities of East and West to subjection to him.....Every city in Raja Shulan's path fell to him until he came to a city called Gangga Shah Nagara (Ganga Nagar) the Raja of which was called Raja Linggi Shah (king Raja Linggi). Now this city stood on a hill and though from the front it appeared to stand at a great height it was quite low at the back. It's fort still stands to this day (sixteenth century when the Malay historical chronicle "Sejarah Melayu" was composed) at Dindings on the other side of Perak river.

    When Raja Linggi Shah Johan (Raja Linggayohan) heard of the approach of Raja Shulan), he gave orders for his forces to be assembled, the gates of the fort to be shut. the moat to be filled with water and the fortifications to be manned. Raja Shulan's army advance to surround the fort of Raja Linggi Shah Johan, but so stout was the defence that his men could make no headway. When he saw this Raja Shulan mounted an elephant that was in season and moved in to the attack, and though the men of the garrison rained spears and arrows upon him he heeded them not and forced his way up to the gate of the fort of Ganga Nagara. He struck the gate of the fort with his mace and it crashed to the ground, whereupon he and his war-chiefs entered the fort.

    When Raja Linggi Shah Johan saw Raja Shulan approaching he stood up and seizing his bow shot an arrow, which struck Raja Shulan's elephant above the base of the trunk. The elephant fell sprawling but Raja Shulan leapt from his back and drawing his sword slashed at Raja Linggi Shah Johan severing his neck with the blow so that his head toppled to the earth and he was killed. When the men of Gangga Nagara saw that their Raja was dead they broke nd fled......"
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated of C.C.Brown. (Oxford University Press)


    Discussion

    In the third and fourth centuries A.D. there had been a heavy flow of Buddhist Missionaries travelled to South East Asian Countries from the Indian Port Tamaralipti of the then Kalinga country in East India. With them many Buddhist Artisons and Sculpturers too travelled to the South-East Asian Countries especially to lower Thailand region, Malaysia and Indonesia. Their flow from Kalinga country of India was so great that the people of these countries called them not as people from India but from Kalinga. This subseqently lead them to refer to India as Kalinga, irrespective of whether they came from North India or South India. Hence the reference in the Sejarah Melayu as ".....a certain city in the realm of Kalinga its name was Nagapatam......." means that the city (seaport city) Nagapattinam of Cholas in South India.

    Further the premier Historical Chronicle of Malaysia namely Sejarah Melayu (in Malay Language said to be authored by a Muslim author of a parentage of half Arab and half Tamil) has mentioned the original Hindu names of the kings of Malaysia and Chola in an Arabised format. I have restored them to the closest possible Hindu names without making much alteration to Arabised names of the Sejarah Melayu. In the process I have restored the Raja Shulan to "Raja Cholan", Gangga Shah Nagara to "Ganga Nagar", the Raja Linggi Shah to "Raja Lingga", and Raja Linggi Shah Johan as "Raja Linggayohan". The word Shah in Arabic means "king". It should also be noted only towards to A.D.1275 the religion of Islam gradually set a strong foothold on Malaysia and Indonesia which is also confirmed from the Venitian Christian Traveller - Marco Polo's Travel Writings, prior to which it was entirely Hindu.

    In the great Chola Naval war expedition (Alai Kadal Naduvil pala Kalam seluththi) sent to South-East Asia the Chola Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 himself didnot participate in same, but sent under two important personalities namely under a grandson (a Chola Prince) and the Chola commander-in-chief namely Chola Brammarayer. Th exact name of this Chola Prince is not known but long after the Chola expedition of South-East Asia he was given the title "Kadaremkonda Cholan" by his grand father in recognition of his great acheivement in capturing the region of Kadarem (present Kedah & Perak region of West Malaysia). However in all possibilties he could have been another Rajaraja Chola by name, and hence he was referred as "Raja Cholan" in Sejarah Melayu.


    Conquer of Mayirudingam

    After their victory over the kingdom of Kadaarem the Chola forces under Raja Cholan headed towards the kingdom the Maayirudingam in South Malaysia. The name Maayirudingam split as Maa + Irudingam means the large Irudingam of South Malaysia, a big city with a fortress of blackstone (granite) known as 'Glang Gui' (Lenggui in corrupted form). This kingdom at that time was ruled by the king Chulin.

    When the king Chulin of Mayirudingam heard of the approach of the Chola forces under Raja Cholan he gathered all his forces and advanced forward and after ten miles encountered the Chola forces. The king Chulin who came on his elephant charged on Chola forces. The king Raja Cholan too fought from his elephant. However in the bitter battle king Chulin met his death by arrow from Raja Cholan. The forces of Chulin with his fall broke and fled. The Chola forces then entered the fortress of Glang Gui sacked it and collected much treasures of this kingdom.

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum........
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Conquer of Sri Vijaya

    The Chola forces lead by Chola Brahmmarayar - the commander in chief of Rajendra Chola - 1, went straight to the capital city of Sri Vijaya on Bukit Senguntang in South Sumatra of Indonesia, and routed the Sri Vijaya forces and captured it's Emperor Sangirama Vijayotungavarman, also the overlord of Kadaaram with the elephants of his glorious army, large heap of treasures this king rightfully accumulated captured with much voice, the Vidya Thoranam at the war gates of his extensive capital and the wicket gate adorned with great splendour - the gate of large jewels.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi,
    Sangirama-Vijayothungapanman akiya Kadaaraththu arasanai
    vaakayam porukadal kumba kariyodum ahappaduththu, urimaiyil pirakkiya peru nithi pirakkamum aarththu,
    avan aha Nagar poar tholil vaasalil vichathara thoranamum, muththolir punai manip puthavamum,
    kanakamani kathavamum - nirai Sri Vijayamum,
    maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    (3) Raja Cholan marries the sister and daughter of the kings of Kadarem and Mayirudingam

    The Raja Cholan after his victory over the king Linggayohan of Kadaarem who met his death in the battlefield, married his beautiful sister Putri Ganga, and with the fall of king Chulin of Maayirudingam he also married his beautiful daughter Onang Kiu. With the victory of Chola forces at Sri Vijaya under the Chola commander Chola Brahmarayer, the eldest daughter of Sangirama Vijayoungavarman namely Sangirama Prasotungadevi escaped to Java, while the younger daughter (name not known) of the king of Sri Vijaya was taken captive to Raja Cholan was then at Temasek. Raja Cholan married the Sri Vijayan Princess and made her too as his consort.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....After the death of the Raja Ganggi Shah Juana (Raja Linggi Shah Jogan of Raffles Version) Raja Suran (Raja Cholan of Raffles version) who married Putri Gangga the beautiful sister of Raja Ganggi Shah Juana......"
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)

    ".....Raja Chulan (Raja Chulin) of Raffles Version) left a daughter of great beauty named putri Onang Kiu whom Raja Suran (Raja Cholan of Raffles Version) took to wife and carrying her with him advanced to Tasak (Temasek of Raffles Version)....."
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)

    ".......Now Raja Chulin had a very beautiful daughter called Onang Kiu. She was offered to Raja Shulan (Raja Cholan) who took her as consort......"
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated of C.C.Brown. (Oxford University Press)


    Discussion


    (4) Raja Cholan visits Temasek with his Malay Brides

    After his victory over the kingdom of Maayirudingam, the Chola king 'Raja Cholan' with his forces reached the island in the south known as "Temasek" which formed a part of this kingdom with his Malay Brides. This was the first instant the Chola forces from Tamil Nadu India tread on the island of Temasek (the present Singapore).

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....Raja Chulan (Raja Chulin) of Raffles Version) left a daughter of great beauty named putri Onang Kiu whom Raja Suran (Raja Cholan of Raffles Version) took to wife and carrying her with him advanced to Tasak (Temasek of Raffles Version)....."
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)


    (5) Raja Cholan's plans invasion of South China

    The news that the mighty Chola forces has now reached the island of Temasek and planned to invade South China - "possibly" due to some interference of the Chinese Governer in the Quang Chow (Canton) seaport in South China into the thriving trade in this region by the Tamil Traders from Chola country and other regions of Tamil Nadu. The Chinese Emperor sent an embassy to the island of Temasek to meet Raja Cholan and possibly with discussions came to amicable terms.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......After a time they came to Temasek. And news reached China that 'Raja Shulan' is going to invade our country with an army that no man can number and already at Temasek. This report caused consternation to the Raja of China and he addressed his ministers and officers saying that 'think you is our best plan for averting this calamity? For if this Raja of Kalinga (Chola country) reaches China assuredly this country of ours will be destroyed....."
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated of C.C.Brown. (Oxford University Press)


    (6) Raja Cholan returns to Chola country with his Malay Princesses

    Raja Cholan therafter left behind part of his forces at Sri Vijaya under the rule of a Chola commander Chola Brahmmarayer and returned to Thanjavur in Chola country with his Malay Wifes, and with the treasures and trophies collected from the South-East Asian countries conquered by them. At Thanjavur they were given a warm welcome with Raja Cholan having been given the title as "Kadaremkonda Cholan", and to commemorate this great event, a village in Chola country was named as "Kadaremkonda Cholapuram" and the other as "Kadaremkonda Cholanallur", a Siva temple was built named "Kadaremkonda Cholaeswarem" and the other as "Vijayamkonda Cholaeswarem". During this period Raja Cholan's grandfather Rajendra Chola -1 completed building his new royal city named "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", and building of a great tank within the city named the "Chola Gangam". Raja Chola apparently participated in these ceremonies with his Malay Princsses (wifes).

    (7) Raja Cholan ascends throne at Sri Vijaya

    Thereafter Raja Cholan returned to Sri Vijaya with his Malay Queens and ruled this kingdom on behalf of grandfather Rajendra Chola - 1 of the Chola country, living with his Malay queens Puteri Ganga, Onang Kiu and the youngest daughter of Sangirama Vijayotungaarman, spread his control over the countries in Malaysia and Sumatra which the Chola forces captured, and that were earlier the tributories of the Sri Vijaya empire

    The above are confirmed by the following References:


    (8) Raja Cholan's off springs by the Malay Pricesses of Kadarem and Maayirudingam

    The Malay queen 'Puteri Ganga' the daughter of former king Linngayogan of Kadaarem had three sons. the eldest was named Vichitran, Palidutan, Nilumanan. The Malay queen 'Onang Kiu' the daughter of former king Chulin of Mayirudingam gave birth to a beautiful daughter by Raja Cholan who was named as 'Chendani Wasis'. The Malay queen former princess of Sri Vijaya (name not known) had a son by Raja Cholan named "Demag Lebar Thavun".

    Raja Cholan with his sons by Puteri Ganga reaching their youthful age, keeping to the wishes of the people of Sumatra crowned the eldest son Vichitran as the king of the Minangkaabu kingdom with his new title "Sang Sapurba", the second son Paladuthani as the king of Thanjongpura region with the title "Sang Maniaka" and the third son Nilumanam stayed with his half-brother Demang Lebar Thavun at Sri Vijaya in present Palembang with his new title "Sang Uththama".

    Raja Cholan with her coming of age gave his grand-daughter Chendani Wasis in marriage to a Malay Prince named Narsi Barderas by whom she had three sons named Jiran, who became the king of Chandragiri Nagara (Thondaimandala region of Tamil Nadu), Chulan adopted by his grand-father Raja Cholan ruling from Sri Vijaya, and Pandayan who succeeded his uncle Nilumanam as the king of Nagapattinam region of then Chola country.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Raja Suran (Raja Cholan) placed his son Palidutani in the government of Amdan Nagara and his son Nilumanam in the country of Chandukani. On his eldest son Bichitram Shah, he only conferred a territory of small extent......"
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)


    ".....Raja Narsi Barderas (of Mayirudingam) married the daughter (Chendani Wasis) of Raja Shulan (Raja Cholan) the Raja Amdan Nagara (Sri Vijaya of Sumatra) who it is asserted by some was the grandson of Raja Nashirwan Adel (Rajendra Chola - 1) the son of Raja Kobad Sah Shariar (Rajendra Chola - 2) who was Raja of east and west. Raja Shulan (Raja Cholan) was the mightiest prince of the lands of Hind (India) and Sind (West Pakistan) region and of all Rajas under the wind.
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)


    By the Princess (Chendani Wasis) his (Raja Cholan's) daughter Raja Narsi had three sons - Raja Heiran who reigned in the country of Hindostan (India), Raja Suran whom Raja Shulan (Raja Cholan) took and installed in his own place (Sri Vijaya as his heir apparent), Raja Panden who reigned in Turkestan (Chola country). After a short time Raja Shulan died and his grandson Raja Suran reigned in his place Amdan Nagara.
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)


    (9) Raja Cholan returns to Chola country with the death of Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 in Chola country

    Raja Cholan after nineteen years of rule from Sri Vijaya with the death of Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 in Chola country in the year A.D.1044 decided and returned to Chola country. He crowned his son Demang Lebar Thavun by the Sri Vijayan Princess as his successor to Sri Vijayan kingdom.

    After few years king Demang Lebar Thavun gave her daughter in marriage to his half-brother Sang Uththama, and he himself abdicated the throne and crowned Sang Uththama with the new royal title as "Sri Thiri Bhuvana" the next king of Sri Vijaya - a great grandson of Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 of the Chola country. Demang Lebar Thavun assumed the position of chief minister in the Sri Vijaya kingdom under Sri Thiri Bhuvana.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    .......After a short time Raja Shulan died and his grandson (not grandson but should be son) Raja Suran reigned in his place Amdan Nagara (Sri Vijaya of Sumatra)
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated by Dr John Leyden, Longmans Press)


    (10) King of Palembang tours Temasek and renamed it as Singapura

    After some years of rule Sri Thiri Bhuvana with an interest of touring the seaborne regions in the close vicinity of Sumatra and Malaysia boarded a ship with his mother queen Permaisuri (Parameswari) wife of Demang Lebar Thuvan and with his chief minister Demang Lebar Thavun (his father-in-law) leaving behind his offspring to take care of the kingdom of Sri Vijaya during his absense.

    They visited some seaborne countires in the region and finally visted the island of Temasek. While he went on a hunting spree in this island he suddenly saw a strange animal which appeared and escaped. He inquired from those who accompanied him in his hunting and was advised it was a lion. He liked this island of Temasek and built a new city in this island and named it as Singapura (Singam in Tamil and Simha in Sanskrit means "Lion", and puram or pura means city. Hence Singapura means the "Lion city").

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......After Sri Tri Buana had been living for some time at Palembang he planned to visit the coast and he sent for Demang Lebar Daun who came forthwith, and Sri Tri Buana said to him "I am thinking of going to the coast to find a suitable site for a city. What say you ?", and Demang Lebar Daun replied, "As your Highness pleases".....Demang Lebar Daun arranged for his younger brother to remain at Palembang in his absense saying "I am leaving you here in charge of the city as I am going with his majesty accompanying him whenever he may go" and his brother replied, very well no wish of yours will I disobey....."

    "......After leaving Kuala Palembang they....(finally reached the island Temasek after visiting few Islands).....and when they reached the shore was brought close in and Sri Tri Buana went ashore....The king then went inland for sport on the open ground at Kuala Temasek. And they all beheld a strange animal......When it saw the party it moved away and then disappeared, and Sri Tri Buana inquired of all those who were with him "What beast is that ?". But no one knew. Then said Demang Lebar Daun " our highness I have heard it said that in ancient times it was a lion that had that appearence......Sri Tri Buana (Sang Uththama) then establised a city at Temasek giving it the name Singapura....."
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated of C.C.Brown. (Oxford University Press)




    The Modern Monument symbolizing the "Lion City" at present Singapore

    (10) King of Palembang makes Singapura as his new capital city

    Sri Thiri Bhuvana chose to remain in this island and built his new capital city and became the first Chola/Malay king of Singapura (Singapore). He lived in this island with his queen 'Vaan Sunthari' and had two daughters and two sons by her named Chandra Devi & Puththiri Sri Devi, Mutahiya, Sang Neela Uthama. he ruled Singapore for forty-eight years and on his death was buried on the hill of Singapore.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Sri Tri buana then established a city at Temasek giving in the name of Singapura, and after he had dwelt for some time at Singapura he had two children both sons by Princess Wan Sendari daughter of Demang Lebar Daun, and Wan Sri Benian died leaving two grand daughters they were married to the two sons of Sri Tri Buana. And when Sri Tri Buana had ruled for forty-eight years then in the process of time he died,as did Demang Lebar Daun and they were buried on the hill of Singapura....."
    Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) - translated of C.C.Brown. (Oxford University Press)


    (11) The last among the Singapura's Hindu Kings Parameswara abondons and becomes the king of Malacca

    The above are confirmed by the following References:


    (10) The last Singapura king embaraces Islam after becoming the king of Malacca


    The above are confirmed by the following References:




    Geneology of Singapore Kings:

    (1) Raja Cholan - A.D.1025- ???? (to be verified)
    (2) Demang Lebar Thavun
    (3) Sri Thiri Bhuvana (Sang Uththama) - A.D.1299-1347
    (4) Sri Wickrama Wira - A.D.1347-1362)
    (5) Ratna Wickrama - A.D.1362-1375
    (6) Paduka Maharaja - A.D.1375-1389
    (7) Parameswara (Iskandar Shah) - A.D.1389-1398
    Majapahit Invasion of Singapore - A.D.1398

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....The first Malay Raja at Singapura was called Seri Teri Buana (Sri Thiri Bhuvana) and came from Bukit Seguntang (Palembang). He was followed by his son Seri Pikrama Wira (Sri Wickrama Wira), who was followed by his son Rakna Wikrama (Ratna Wikrama) whose son and heir was Paduka maharaja, who was followed by his son Raja Iskander Shah (Parameswara) who left Singapura and founded Malaka being the fifth Raja of his line......"
    Silsilah Melayu dan Bugis dan Sakalian Raja-raja-nya - translated by Hans Overbeck, JMBRAS Vol 4, 1926


    Thereafter Singapore was invaded and falls to Majahapit Empire of Java. Parameswara escapes to Malaysia and founded the city of Malaka.

    Courtesy: History of Singapore - Pt 1 - Sutharshan Jaganathan - Discovery Channel - Youtube

    Courtesy: History of Singapore - Pt 2 - Sutharshan Jaganathan - Discovery Channel - Youtube

    Courtesy: History of Singapore - Pt 3 - Sutharshan Jaganathan - Discovery Channel - Youtube

    Courtesy: History of Singapore - Pt 4 - Sutharshan Jaganathan - Discovery Channel - Youtube

    Courtesy: History of Singapore - Pt 5 - Sutharshan Jaganathan - Discovery Channel - Youtube

    The present status of Tamil in Singapore

    Singapore has a population of 3.6 million people of which the Indians form 8.8%. About 60% of Singapore's Indian population speaks Tamil as their native language. Tamil is one of the four official languages in Singapore, other three being Chinese, Malay and English.














    -------------balance to be posted soon------------


    Last edited by virarajendra; 19th August 2016 at 07:21 PM.

  2. # ADS
    Circuit advertisement
    Join Date
    Always
    Posts
    Many
     

  3. #2
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    25,373
    Post Thanks / Like
    Very interesting. Please continue.





    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

  4. #3
    Senior Member Veteran Hubber
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Posts
    2,256
    Post Thanks / Like
    Thanks Thiru NOV I will continue. But a small help from you. I am still unable to edit the title of my threads - if there are any "corrections to be made". Can you advice me on same. All other editing I am able to handle without any problems.

  5. #4
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    25,373
    Post Thanks / Like
    Please PM on the titles you wish to change together with the link to the thread. I'll do the necessary.
    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

  6. #5
    Senior Member Veteran Hubber Cinemarasigan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Location
    Bangalore
    Posts
    2,573
    Post Thanks / Like
    Quote Originally Posted by NOV View Post
    Very interesting. Please continue.



    Indha map-la edhu malaysia, edhu singapore-nu theLivaa therialaiyE
    " The real triumph in life is not in never getting knocked down, but in getting back up everytime it happens".

  7. #6
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    25,373
    Post Thanks / Like
    Quote Originally Posted by Cinemarasigan View Post
    Indha map-la edhu malaysia, edhu singapore-nu theLivaa therialaiyE
    Singapore is the dot at the bottom of peninsula malaysia
    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

  8. #7
    Senior Member Veteran Hubber Cinemarasigan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Location
    Bangalore
    Posts
    2,573
    Post Thanks / Like
    Quote Originally Posted by NOV View Post
    Singapore is the dot at the bottom of peninsula malaysia
    Thanks Nov...
    " The real triumph in life is not in never getting knocked down, but in getting back up everytime it happens".

  9. #8
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    25,373
    Post Thanks / Like
    Here is a better map Karthi



    Singapore is the tiny pink island at the bottom of Malaysia
    (the malaysian indian population is almost equal to the entire singapore population and malaysian indians are only 7% of malaysia's total population)
    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

  10. #9
    Senior Member Veteran Hubber Cinemarasigan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Location
    Bangalore
    Posts
    2,573
    Post Thanks / Like
    Quote Originally Posted by NOV View Post
    Here is a better map Karthi



    Singapore is the tiny pink island at the bottom of Malaysia
    (the malaysian indian population is almost equal to the entire singapore population and malaysian indians are only 7% of malaysia's total population)
    Thanks Nov.. I can see that area wise Singapore is tiny.. And one more thing I come to know today that Malaysia shares the border with Thailand, I thought singapore is closer to Thailand...
    " The real triumph in life is not in never getting knocked down, but in getting back up everytime it happens".

  11. #10
    Administrator Platinum Hubber NOV's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    25,373
    Post Thanks / Like
    The story of Malaysia began more than 50 years ago when four territories washed by the South China Sea decided to unite as a federation, bound more by the ideals of its leaders, a single colonial master and the English language rather than anything else.

    The four territories then were Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, after Brunei decided to opt out of the federation. Singapore was out later, on August 9, 1965, when the Malaysian Parliament voted 126-0 to expel the island state.
    Never argue with a fool or he will drag you down to his level and beat you at it through sheer experience!

Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •