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Thread: Significance of the Tamil New Year

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    Author - Virarajendra

    Significance of the "Thamil (Tamil) New Year"

    This Year the traditional "Tamil New Year" falls on the 1st of the Tamil Month Chiththirai of "Thiruvalluvar Aandu" 2046 {2015 + 31} being 14th April A.D.2015 based on the birth year of Thiruvalluvar - being B.C.31


    "Mangala Isai" on the dawn of the "Thamil Puththaandu"



    A beautiful rendering from Tamil Thirumurai/Thiruvasakam by 'Bombay Saradha' - You Tube

    A beautiful rendering from Tamil Naalaayira Thivya Pirapantham' by 'Bombay Saradha' - You Tube








    Briefly on the "Thamil Puththaandu" - also referred to as the "Thamil Puthu Varuda Pirrappu" on the following URL

    http://kidsone.in/tamil/festivals/tamil-new-year.jsp


    (1) The Hindu Astronomical Significance of the Tamil New Year

    The Earth travels in an eliptical path around the Sun through 360 degrees (Paakai in Tamil), and the time period for one such complete travel around the Sun (Suriyan in Tamil) is called an Year (Aandu in Tamil).

    The circumferance of the eliptical path traced by the Earth (Ulaham in Tamil) having the Sun as the central point - are divided into twelve arcs, and the angular segments traced by each arc measuring 30 degress is called a House (Veedu in Tamil or Rasi in Sanskrit). Thus the earth passes through twelve Houses in an year.

    In actual fact, it is the Earth which enters each Houses at any given time. But for us who live on the Earth it appears as if the Sun is moving (relative Motion), and we very loosely say that the "Sun travels through the twelve Houses"

    The twelve Houses are named as,

    (1) Meda Veedu or Raasi
    (2) Idapa Veedu or Raasi
    (3) Mithuna Veedu or Raasi
    (4) Kataka Veedu or Raasi
    (5) Singa Veedu or Raasi
    (6) Kanni Veedu or Raasi
    (7) Thula Veedu or Raasi
    (8) Virutchika Veedu or Raasi
    (9) Thanu Veedu or Raasi
    (10) Makara Veedu or Raasi
    (11) Kumba Veedu or Raasi
    (12) Meena Veedu or Raasi

    The Sun (that appears to be moving) in to Meda Veedu or Raasi, is taken as the starting point of it's next complete cycle throught the twelve Veeduhal.

    The period of travel of the Sun in each Veedu or Raasi is known as a "Thingal" - a Month (also known as Maatham in Tamil and Maasa in Sanskrit). Hence for the Sun to travel through the twelve Veedus or Rasis to complete one cycle, it takes twelve Thingals which is known as an "Aandu" - a Year (also known as Varudam in Tamil and Varusha in Sanskrit).

    The time the Sun enters the "Meda Veedu" or Raasi was traditionally taken as the starting point of the New Year by the Tamils.

    Also the "positioning" (Niyathi) of the twenty seven "Meengal" (Natchaththirams) within these twelve Veeduhal too has been traditionally counted from "Acchuvini" the first Meen in the Meda Veedu, and ends up in "Revathi" as the last Meen in the Meena Veedu.

    The fact that the Meda Veedu commences with the first of the twenty seven Meenkal namely the Acchuvini in "initial position" (Niyathi), too confirms that from the early days Tamils reckoned the starting point of a year cycle with the Meda Veedu.

    The one who calculates the astronomical settings and movements of the Earth, Sun, and other Planets in respect of the 12 Veedus or Rasis is known as the "Sothidar". But in ancient times in Tamil Nadu they were known as the "Kaalak Kanithar"

    (2) The Tamil Seasonal Significance of the Tamil New Year

    The Tamils have divided an Aandu in to six seasons based on the climatic conditions in Tamil Nadu, and sequenced them with the commencement of the Ilavenil Kaalam. They are namely the,

    Ilavenil Kaalam: mild sunny period : Chiththirai, Vaikaasi - Thingal
    : mid April to mid June
    Muthuvenil Kaalam: intense sunny period : Aani, Aadi - Thingal
    : mid June to mid August
    Kaar Kaalam: cloudy rainy Period : Aavani, Purataasi - Thingal
    : mid August to mid October
    Kuthir Kaalam: cold period : Iyppassi, Kaarthihai - Thingal
    : mid October to mid December
    Munpani Kaalam: early misty period (evening dew): Maarkali, Thai - Thingal
    : mid December to mid February
    Pinpani Kaalam: late misty period (morning dew): Maasi, Panguni - Thingal
    : mid February to mid April

    The beginning of the Ilavenil Kaalam of the Tamils coincides with the beginning of the Sun moving into the Meda Veedu or Rasi, which falls in mid April, and is the time of commencement of the Tamil month of Chitthirai.

    The Ilavenil Kaalam covers both the months of Chitthirai and Vaikaasi as mentioned earlier. Vaikaasi too being a month of the Ilavenil Kaaalam is confirmed by a reference in the Chera(Kerala) Tamil Epic of the second century, known as "Manimekalai" composed by the Poet Saaththanaar.

    The Reference is as follows:

    ".......Iruthu Ilavenil erikathir Idapaththu
    oru pathin melum oru moontru sentrapin -
    Meenaththu idainilai Meenathu ahavaiyin......."


    Meaning:

    ".......(in the) season Ilavenil (when) the Sun is in the Idapa (Veedu = Raasi) (being the month of Vaikaasi), (after) one ten plus one three natchaththiram (stars) have passed, (on) the day of the central natchaththiram (star) (being the Chiththirai natchath-thiram) - ......."

    Manimekalai - by Poet Seeththalai Saaththanaar, Paaththiram pettra kaathai, line 40-42

    (U.V.Saaminaatha Iyer's 6th edition - 1956)


    Further from the above it is also clear the Chithirai Natchaththiram was the fourteenth natchathiram in the order of reckoning of the twenty seven stars by the Tamils of the second century A.D. and earlier, and working backwards it is further confirmed the first natchaththiram reckoned in the natchathiram cycle was Acchuvini.

    The dawn of the month of Chiththirai is the dawn of the Ilavenil Kaalam, a period of mild sun with much light and less humid wind known to be very soothing and refreshing and was known as "Thentral Kaatru" to Tamils. (Please note "Chiththirai Maatham" (month) and the "Chitthirai Natchathiram" (Star) are two different things. 'Chitthirai Maatham' (i.e. the period from Mid April to mid May) comes only once a year, while 'Chiththirai Natchatchiram' occurs during each of the twelve month of a year)

    This might be the very reason the Tamil Saiva Saint of Tamil Nadu namely the Thirunaavukkarsu Naayanaar of the late sixth and early seventh century, equated the pleasure of being at the feet of God Siva - is as good as the "blowing Thentral Kaatru during the extended Ilavenil Kaalam", showing the great delight the Tamils had during the "Ilavenil Kaalam".

    The Reference is as follows:

    "Maasil veenaiyum maalai mathiyamum
    veesu thentralum veengu Ilavenilum
    moosu vandari poikaiyum pontrathe
    Eesan enthai inai adi nilale"


    Meaning:

    ".......the speckless Veena, the (late) evening moon, the blowing Thentral (kaattru-wind) and the spanning Ilavenil season, the pond with cooling water like which is the shade of my father Easan's twin feet......."

    Thevaara Thiruppathikamgal : 5th Thirumurai - by Tamil Saiva Saint Thirunaavukkarasar, Thanith Thirukkurunthokai Pathikam, Ver' 1

    (Second Edition - Published by Gangai Puththaka Nilayam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

    (3) The Sangam Period sequence of the Tamil Months of a Year

    The "Kooththa Nool" a dance treatise composed by poet Saaththanaar of the "third Thamil Sangam" period of the first/second century Tamil Nadu, in describing the different type of clouds associated with each month of an year, has also sequenced the Tamil months with the commencement of Chitthirai Thingal and ending up with Panguni Thingal.

    The Reference is as follows:

    ".......Chitthirai, Vaikaasi, Aani, Aadi, Aavani, Purattaasi, Iyppassi, Karththikai, Maarkali, Thaiyudan, Maasi, Panguni, ennath Thingal ovvondru inangum "muhil neri" kooththe "Muhil-vari" enba......."

    Meaning:

    "........the 'muhil neri' dances which complies which each month Chitthirai, Vaikaasi, Aani, Aadi, Aavani, Purattaasi, Iyppassi, Karththikai, Maarkali, Thaiyudan, Maasi, Panguni, are (known as) the "Muhil-vari" (in the treatise on dance).

    Kooththa Nool - by Poet Saaththanaar, chapter titled the Vari Nool

    (Second Edition - Published by Tamil Nadu Iyal Isai Nataka Mantram, Chennai, through the courtesy of Thirumathi Yogiyar wife of - Late Thiru Yogiyar who discovered this ancient Ola Manuscript - a Sangam Period Tamil Dance Treatise)

    Further the "third Thamil Sangam" period Literature the "Nedunelvaadai" composed by poet Nakeeranaar too confirms that the Sun moves through the houses of Raasis 'starting' from the Meda Raasi which is the month of Chiththirai.

    "......Thinnilai maruppin Aadu thalai yaha (with Meda Veedu or Raasi as the first) vinn uurbu thiri tharum veengu selal mandilathuthu......'

    Meaning:

    Nedunelvaadai - by Poet Nakkeeranaar, verse 160

    Further the "third Thamil Sangam" period Tamil Literature the "Puranaanooru" has a verse composed by poet Kudaluur Keelaar which too confirms that the New year dawns with the Meda Raasi which is the month of Chiththirai.

    "Aadu Iyal alal kuttaththu Aar irrul arai iravil
    muudapp panaiyaththu ver muthalaak
    kadaik kulaththu kayam kaayap Panguni uyar aluvath
    thalai naal meen nilai thiriya
    nilai naalmeen athan ethir errthara
    thol naal meen thurai padiya
    paasi sellaathu uusi thunaathu alakkarth thinai vilakkaakak
    kanai eri parappa kaal ethippu pongi oru meen vilunththantraal visumbinaane


    Meaning:

    Puranaanooru - by Poet Kudaluur Keelaar, verse 229

    Note:

    We also note in the third century B.C. at a time when 'Meda Rasi' or 'Mesha Rasi' was called by it's pure Tamil name as "Aadu Iyal" (Aadu = Medam and Iyal = Raasi) the Tamils recognised it to be the first Veedu (or Raasi) being the Tamil month of Chiththirai of the Tamil year reckoning system. This is confirmed by the reference in the Tamil Literature of third Thamil Sangam period namely in the 'Nedunelvaadai' of the poet Nakkeerar of first century B.C. as ".....Thinnilai maruppin Aadu thalai yaha vinn uurbu thiri tharum veengu selal mandilathuthu......' and by a verse in 'Puranaanooru' by the poet Koodal Kilaar as "....Aadu Iyal alal kuttaththu.....". The second reference in Puranaanooru was made on the Tamil Chera (Kerala) king Maantharam Cheral Irumporai 3 to 4 decades ahead of the Silapathikaaram period in second century B.C.

    Hence it is clear the Tamils selected the dawn of the Tamil New Year with the beginning of the "Ilavenil Kaalam" being also the time the Sun just enters the "Meda Veedu" and the beginning of the"Meenkal Suttru" (Natchaththira cycle) commencing with "Acchuvini". The dawn of the New Year was referred to as the "Puthiya Aandu Pirappu" or "Varudha Pirappu", and the starting month of the New Year was called as the "Chiththirai Thingal" or Matham.

    The Chitthirai Thingal (Maatham) with Ilavenil Kaalam was most welcome for the Tamils, and in many Hindu Temples in Tamil Nadu they celebrated the annual festival of the respective Temples in Chitthirai Thingal referred to as "Chiththirai Thiruvilaa" which was also known as the Vasantha (Ilavenil in Tamil) Vilaa from the period of Nayakkar rule in Tamil Nadu.

    (4) The Tamil - Hindu Cyclic System of Years

    The Tamils also considered an average life cycle of a human-being as 60 years, and reckoned a "Cyclic System of Years" based on same provided with different names for each year falling within this cycle. The Year Cycle repeats itself in every 60 years. The names of the sixty years of this cycle are as follows.

    (1) Pirapava Aandu
    (2) Vipava Aandu
    (3) Sukla Aandu
    (4) Piramothuutha Aandu
    (5) Pirasotpaththi Aandu
    (6) Aangeerasa Aandu
    (7) Srimuha Aandu
    (8) Pava Aandu
    (9) Yuva Aandu
    (10) Thaathu Aandu
    (11) Eeswara Aandu
    (12) Vehuthaaniya Aandu
    (13) Piramaathi Aandu
    (14) Vikrama Aandu
    (15) Visha Aandu
    (16) Chitirabaanu Aandu
    (17) Subaanu Aandu
    (18) Thaarana Andu
    (19) Paarththipa Aandu
    (20) Viya Aandu
    (21) Sarvasiththu Aandu
    (22) Sarvathaari Aandu
    (23) Virothi Aandu
    (24) Vikruthi Aandu
    (25) Kara Aandu
    (26) Nanthana Aandu
    (27) Vijaya Aandu
    (28) Jaya Aandu
    (29) Manmatha Aandu
    (30) Thunmuki Aandu
    (31) Hovilambi Aandu
    (32) Vilambi Aandu
    (33) Vikaari Aandu
    (34) Saarvari Aandu
    (35) Pilava Aandu
    (36) Subakiruthu Aandu
    (37) Sobakiruthu Aandu
    (38) Kurothi Aandu
    (39) Visuvaasuva Aandu
    (40) Paraapava Aandu
    (41) Pilavanga Aandu
    (42) Keelaka Aandu
    (43) Soumiya Aandu
    (44) Saathaarana Aandu
    (45) Virothikiruthu Aandu
    (46) Parithaapi Aandu
    (47) Piramaatheesa Aandu
    (48) Aanantha Aandu
    (49) Raatchasa Aandu
    (50) Nala Aandu
    (51) Pingala Aandu
    (52) Kaalayukthi Aandu
    (53) Siththaarththi Aandu
    (54) Rouththri Aandu
    (55) Thunmathi Aandu
    (56) Thunththupi Aandu
    (57) Ruthrothkaari Aandu
    (58) Rakthaatchi Aandu
    (59) Kurothana Aandu
    (60) Atsaya Aandu

    According to the above Cyclic System of Years, the Tamil New Year the "Thaarana Aandu" dawns on the first day of the Chiththirai Thingal, which is the 13th of April 2004.

    A further Research Study is to be made to ascertain whether the so called "Hindu 60 - Years Reckoning Cycle" was actually of Sanskrit origin, or of Ancient Tamil origin with Tamil names which were subsequently changed to Sanskrit names with the intense Sanskritisation of 'Tamil Nadu - Culture and Practices' during the period of Pallava dynasty in north Tamil Nadu (A.D.575-900) with their capital at Kanchipuram.

    Under further construction



    ---------------------------------------------------------------
    Last edited by virarajendra; 14th April 2015 at 01:28 PM.

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  3. #2
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    quite Interesting and Informative presentation... Thanks Mr Vira Rajendra...

    But a few Errors... here and there... One of which is... Makara is the 10th and Kumbha is the 11th House.... Meena the 12th.... from Mesha the 1st.

    Please clarify on Two Points?

    (1) Who Invented or initiated this Tamilian Calendar?

    (2) How it is named as Tamilian Months and Years.... while the whole lot are of Sanskrit words?...

    (3) Or Perhaps... named so because Tamilian Panchaangam and Year calculations are Soorya-Maana (based on the movement of Earth in relation to Sun) while the most other parts of India, including the Neighbour-states of Andhra, Karnataka ...except Kerala and Bengal ... are following the Chandra-Maana (based on the Movement of Moon in relation to Earth and Sun)... So their New-years day is diifferent.

    Please clarify.... Thanking you in Advance.

  4. #3
    Senior Member Regular Hubber aravindhan's Avatar
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    When I lived in Thailand, I was amazed by how similar their calender was to ours. Here're the names of their months (more or less, I may have made some small mistakes):

    Makara khom
    Kumpha yon
    Meena khom
    Mesa yon
    Phuthsapha khom
    Mithuna yon
    Karakada khom
    Singhaa khom
    Kanyaa yon
    Tulaa khom
    Phruthsadyika yon
    Thanwa khom

    The months are now synchronised to the western calender (so Makara khom is identical to January). However, their traditional New Year's day - "songkran" - usually falls on approximately the same day as the Tamil varudapirappu.

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    Thiru Sudaama,

    Thanking you for pinpointing the small error in my posting.

    The Makara is in fact the tenth & Kumba the eleventh. Error corrected.

    As to who invented the Tamil Calender is still not known, but the Tamil months are mentioned in the Sangam period Tamil Literature.

    Re- the third query I think what you have pointed out could be a possibility, as to the Sanskrit names for the years is to be investigated.


    Thiru Aravindhan,

    Your information about the names of the months as prevailing presently in Thailand is very useful. Could you very kindly let us also know of the names of the seven days of the week as prevailing there today.

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    Unique Tamilian-Calendar

    There is also some Experts Opinion.... stating that....

    (1) Tamilian Calendar is the only the Typical one, wherein both the basis of the Sun's and the Moon's movements have been given importance and involvement. So to say the Names of the Months are named after the Star on which Pournhami or the Full-Moon days coincide. For example... the star Mriga-seersham falls on the Pournhami day in the Month of Maarhazhi... Chithra in the the month of Chiththirai ... and Visaakam in the month of Vaikaasi ... Karthikai in the Month of Kaarthikai and so on. Sometimes it may slightly vary. But the general basis of the Names of the Months are the indirect Names of the Stars in relation to the Full-moon day of the respective month..

    Whereas the day the Sun enters the respective House or Rasi is taken as the first day of the tamil-Month. Sun remains within each House of about 30 degrees for 29-32 days... which duration is taken as the Tamilian month... Thus it culminates in... 365.25 days of 360 degrees of one circle by Earth around the Sun.... so to say the full course of Earth's Orbit around the Sun... exactly making One Tamil Year.

    (2) Kings of those days believed and patronised Astrology.... and used to frequently convene extensive Astrological Sadas or Conference and Seminars. Such of those different Kings of various Linguistic regions of Bhaaratha country...used to invite the Scholars from all over India, then called Akhila-Bhaaratha... and they used to participate.

    India in those days, comprised of different Linguistic Regions and Countries.... contrary to the present Single Nation as India.. So they felt the need of uniform Terminologies all over India... irrespective of the individual Astrologer's Linguistic region. The Sanskrit names were preferred by all... which for most of the Tamil months still continue.

    On the recommendation of their Astrologers, the Kings of the then Bengal and Kerala Regions preferred and recognised the Tamilian-Astrologers Calendar... which continues in those 3 Linguistic Regions only.. presently..... which is based on Soorya-Maana, while the rest of the whole India especially the major part of North-India, follow Chandra-mana.

    So the latter's Calendar, Months as well as the New-year- day falls different from that of the Tamilians.

    ... In the Chandra-mana Calendar...(followed by the people of Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarathi etc. Regions) ...such difference is corrected by periodically introducing an additional month ... named "Adhika-Maasa... in some of the years in course of time.

    In case of English calendar it is corrected ..once in 4 years ....by adding up one more day (0.25 x 4 = 1..00) in February, during the so-called Leap-year... by making up the Cumulative difference (by Shortage) of about 6 Hours (about 0.25 day) per Each year. ... So as to complete the full cycle in the course of One year of 365.25 days.... i.e., the Time taken by Earth to complete one cycle around the Sun.

    Whereas Only the.... Tamilian Calendar Year...it is exact... by the Beginning and End of ...

    ..... Each year... since set right ... during the course of the same year itself...

    ... by making up such a ... Cumulative- Shortage.. between the Theoretical and Realistic figures

    ... Thus... Unique... and... Far different... from... Other Indian and Global Calendars as well. !!!

  7. #6
    Senior Member Regular Hubber aravindhan's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by virarajendra
    Your information about the names of the months as prevailing presently in Thailand is very useful. Could you very kindly let us also know of the names of the seven days of the week as prevailing there today.
    The names of the Thai days are closer to the Sanskrit names, I think, but here they are, with their meanings in brackets:

    Monday: Wan chanthar (day of the moon)
    Tuesday: Wan angkhaar (day of Mars)
    Wednesday: Wan phuut (day of Mercury)
    Thursday: Wan paruhan (day of Jupiter)
    Friday: Wan sukar (day of Venus)
    Saturday: Wan sear (day of Saturn)
    Sunday: Wan athith (day of the Sun)

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    So which year are we going to celebrate this 14th April?

    Did Cholas begin celebrations?


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    dear sirs,
    what mr.sudhama said is right for the most part except few:
    We find marking of Tamizh seasons in Tholkappiyam as Perumbozhuthgal', each year divided into 6 seasons, each containing 2 seasons.Tholkappiyam mentions ilavaenil at ciththirai and vaikaasi[spring in april and may];but at present spring in Tamizh Nadu is in thai and maasi[january and february];which means there had been a shift in the positions of star constellations from the time of this record in the first Tamizh grammar book (and passed on from number of generations of masters and students upto the age of writing down of Tholkappiyam nool) to the present day - the aries(aadu iyal-mesha with aswini as first monthstar) constellation had moved from Tamizh spring day -january to april now;
    That is:

    Spring starts always at January 14 in Tamlzh Naadu;
    The source of Tholkaappiyam says Aries(Mesha) constellation was usually seen at the start of Spring--Jan 14;
    Presently Aries is seen as the evening star by April 21;

    So we understand that January14 is the start of spring in Tamil Nadu geographically;and hence the New Year was and should be on Januar14 .
    You may ask why Tholkaappiyam mentioned that springtime was during Chiththirai and Vaikaasi.It was because at the time of writing the script for Tamizhl grammar the Chiththirai star was seen as the evening star in the present January month.But over thousands of years the celestial positions of stars moved away{still moving--the scientists call this phenomenon "the red shift of stars" it is an Astronomical fact.}
    Tholkapiyam may have been a rewritten version of an earlier grammar work { Agaththiyam or another ancient work- 100's of years even prior to the Tholkaappiyam era}
    in the colloqial documentation style of the then present time.

    Then how did the New year celebrations then changed to April 14! It was because in the later centuries of the 3rd Koodal Academy the Chozhar kings and the people were celebrating the INDIRA VIZHAA{Cilappadhigaaram} with so much fervour and cultural values for 1 month from chithirai pournami to the vaikaasi pournami that even after the 1 month-long festival was forgotten the auspice remained and in due course converted into the New year day celebration as a relic of the past.
    Regarding star names:
    Purananooru names the star signs upon the death of Mandaranjeral Irumborai.
    Aadu Iyal-mesha rasi{Iyal-Rasi}
    azhal kuttam-anusham
    thalai meen-mirugaseerisham
    nilai meen-the north star
    thol naannmeen-moolam. etc.
    and many more.
    Ther is no mentioning of present prevailing Sanskrit names for Raasi and Year and STAR names.
    So, the present Sanskrit names in Tamil Kaalakkanidham came from the mingling of {"akilabharatha koottam"} North Indian and THE South Indian astrologers some time later than 250 C.E. {end of the 3rd Koodal} (perhaps during the 11 th to 15 th centuries).

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    This Year the Tamil New Year falls on the 14-4-2006 as per the Panchangams being the ''Viya Andu".

  11. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by senthilkumaras
    dear sirs,
    what mr.sudhama said is right for the most part except few:
    We find marking of Tamizh seasons in Tholkappiyam as Perumbozhuthgal', each year divided into 6 seasons, each containing 2 seasons.Tholkappiyam mentions ilavaenil at ciththirai and vaikaasi[spring in april and may];but at present spring in Tamizh Nadu is in thai and maasi[january and february];which means there had been a shift in the positions of star constellations from the time of this record in the first Tamizh grammar book (and passed on from number of generations of masters and students upto the age of writing down of Tholkappiyam nool) to the present day - the aries(aadu iyal-mesha with aswini as first monthstar) constellation had moved from Tamizh spring day -january to april now;
    That is:

    Spring starts always at January 14 in Tamlzh Naadu;
    The source of Tholkaappiyam says Aries(Mesha) constellation was usually seen at the start of Spring--Jan 14;
    Presently Aries is seen as the evening star by April 21;

    So we understand that January14 is the start of spring in Tamil Nadu geographically;and hence the New Year was and should be on Januar14 .
    You may ask why Tholkaappiyam mentioned that springtime was during Chiththirai and Vaikaasi.It was because at the time of writing the script for Tamizhl grammar the Chiththirai star was seen as the evening star in the present January month.But over thousands of years the celestial positions of stars moved away{still moving--the scientists call this phenomenon "the red shift of stars" it is an Astronomical fact.}
    Tholkapiyam may have been a rewritten version of an earlier grammar work { Agaththiyam or another ancient work- 100's of years even prior to the Tholkaappiyam era}
    in the colloqial documentation style of the then present time.

    Then how did the New year celebrations then changed to April 14! It was because in the later centuries of the 3rd Koodal Academy the Chozhar kings and the people were celebrating the INDIRA VIZHAA{Cilappadhigaaram} with so much fervour and cultural values for 1 month from chithirai pournami to the vaikaasi pournami that even after the 1 month-long festival was forgotten the auspice remained and in due course converted into the New year day celebration as a relic of the past.
    Regarding star names:
    Purananooru names the star signs upon the death of Mandaranjeral Irumborai.
    Aadu Iyal-mesha rasi{Iyal-Rasi}
    azhal kuttam-anusham
    thalai meen-mirugaseerisham
    nilai meen-the north star
    thol naannmeen-moolam. etc.
    and many more.
    Ther is no mentioning of present prevailing Sanskrit names for Raasi and Year and STAR names.
    So, the present Sanskrit names in Tamil Kaalakkanidham came from the mingling of {"akilabharatha koottam"} North Indian and THE South Indian astrologers some time later than 250 C.E. {end of the 3rd Koodal} (perhaps during the 11 th to 15 th centuries).
    The main factor of Tamilian Calendar is the SUN... which is the Royal-planet ruling over... not only all the other Eight planets...

    ...but also the central-force keeping the whole universe under equilibrium and balance of varying operations of one and all the celestial bodies in the space... astronomically too.

    The Tamil year duration has been reckoned as 365.25 days, the time taken by Earth for one cycle around the Sun, the Central-pivotal-force supreme.

    The date of entry of Sun into Mesha(aries) house... which is its location of EXALTED STATUS (Uccha)... falls on or about April-14 every year...

    ..which has been taken as the first day of the year as well as the Month Chiththirai....linking Moon position also with it. So to say the Pournami falls on Chiththirai star-day in the month of Chithirai, as is the basis for all other months too. I have elaborated on this point with full details, in my last posting

    The Sun's Entry-time on the first day of Chithirai month is taken as the Zero-degree....the starting point for one circle of 360 degrees... along the course of all the 12 houses(Each of 30 degrees)

    So the Tamil-calendar is the best one comparatively in the world... Scientifically and by Religious aspects too....as I had already justified.

    Right from ancient days...Tamil-culture extols the Sun-planet highly. And the Sun was worshipped as Supreme God by Tamilians.

    Silappadhikaaram... praises and prays the Sun-God as NJAAYIRHU POATRUDHUM.

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