View Full Version : Muthollaayiram

12th April 2005, 01:24 AM
Can anyone please provide/direct me to an online copy of the Muthollaayiram?

Also, can anyone please explain the reasons for popularly dating this work to the Kalabra Interregnum?

Thank you

13th April 2005, 08:21 AM
What is the Kalabra Interregnum? And what is the Muthollayiram?

Are you referring to the Mudal Aayiram, the first 1000 of the Nalayira Divya Prabandham, or something else?

14th April 2005, 06:22 AM
[tscii:d3e16fa25e]Hi Badri

The Muthollaayiram is a collection of 900 poems each on the Cheras, Chozhas and Pandias. The Kalabra Interregnum is the period starting sometime after the end of the third Sangam and ending sometime prior to the rise of the Pallavas (mid 5th century CE), during which there was a definitive break in the continuity of Tamil culture.

Though it is not known what exactly was happening in Thamizhgam during the Interregnum, it is fairly obvious that this period witnessed an enormous debilitative influence. Since this influence was opressive of Tamil language and religion, it is inferred that it was an external non-Hindu one. The only non-Hindu religion in the vicinity of Thamizhagam during that time were Buddhism and Jainism; and, since no significant remnants of possible Buddhist influence (linguistic, architectural or demographic) are found in TN today, it has been surmised that the said influence was an oppressive north Indian Jain regime.

A study of the Interregnum is instructive because it dramatically altered the content and contruct of Tamil culture. Not only did few literary works originate in this period, but, apparently, numerous works refrenced in the third Sangam did not carried down into post-Kalabra hands. Tamil religion was affected insofar that pre-Kalabra subtle and implied , , and were replaced by post-Kalabra overt and expressive 쾢; Sanskrit found a place of pride in religious activities and, through the culture of Bhakthi, exerted its influence on politics too. Seemingly, overnight, a megalithic architectural civilization was born and a frenetic pace of activity was maintained well into the next millenium.

My interest in the Muthollaayiram is academic - literary and historical. Wherever I read, I was always told that this work has been dated to the Interregnum; Though I was never explicitly told so, I believe this deduction was made because it (the Muthollaayiram) was not found be referenced in the third Sangam and yet was available to the post-Kalabra world. However, I find it hard to believe that the composition (by different people, in praise of different people), collection, codification and arrangement of 2700 poems could have been achieved in less than 600 years while it supposedly took over 1700 years to produce the works of the third Sangam. Besides, such a massive venture would have required large congregations/meetings of the concerned parties (the composers/codefiers) - how likely is this to have happened under an oppressive regime?

I was disappointed to see that this work is not available at the library of the Tamil Virtual University and at Project Madurai, which is why I put up the question here.


14th April 2005, 06:28 AM
Wow! Thanks, Ram! Never knew that there was a thing called the Kalabra Interregnum till I saw your post. Truly, the Hub is such a learning experience!

By the way, why was it called Kalabra? Is that a tamizh word at all? Sounds definitely alien to me. Or maybe I am not prounouncing it right?

14th April 2005, 06:29 AM
Honestly, I have no clue why it called so.